icon picker
VL Intro to Communication/ language Studies

VORLESUNG 1)
The Study of Language - buy book
Online Exam
fill in text questions, picture, hotspot
image.png
language+ structure-
-phonetics-the production and classification of human sounds (influence that vocal organs (lips/ tongue) have in the formation and annunciation of sounds.
- phonology-morphology- how words are formed, families ( it can help explain why certain word forms that appear to be different are actually related, like the words "happy" and "happiness," or "intelligent" and "intelligence.")
-syntax- structure of sentences
-semantics-meaning in language (example, "destination" and "last stop" technically mean the same thing, but students of semantics analyse their subtle shades of meaning.
-pragmatics-meaning in context/ helps us look beyond the literal meaning of words and utterances and allows us to focus on how meaning is constructed in specific contexts.

VORLESUNG 2)
Phonetics
Core linguistics / micro-linguistics: (Phonetics/Phonology, syntax etc.)
Macro-linguistics: Variational, Pragmatics, Constrastive/Psycho/Neuro/ Computational
Diachronic vs Synchronic approach
Applied vs Theoretical approach

Grapheme: letters (spelling retained) (pronunciation varies)
sounds≠Letters (Shoot-Nation) dont rhyme
Homophones: sound the same, spelled differently
Homographs: Spelled same, pronounced differently
Silent Letters: Knee, honest, debt,
1
Phonetics
Phonology
2
Speech sounds in general (Human speech sounds)
Studies the function of sounds as parts of a sound system
3
not language specific
Language specific
4
Concrete
Abstract
There are no rows in this table
Branches of Phonetics:
Articulatory Phonetics
Acoustic Phonetics
Auditory Phonetics
Articulatory Phonetics: The anatomy of speech: Production of speech sounds, consonants and vowels.
Nasal cavity
Alveolar ridge
Teeth
Tip
Blade
Front
Back
Vocal cords
Larynx
Windpipe
Oesophagus
Glottis
Epiglottis
Uvula
Velum or soft palate
Hard palate
image.png

Respiratory System 🗣
breathing out manipulating air flow - produce sounds (words)
egressive pulmonic air stream- pushed up by lungs, passing windpipe, out orally
ingressive: Air is abruptly sucked in through the nose or mouth
Larynx: voice box: contains vocal cords (folds) and the Glottis (opening between the folds)
obstruction (of vocal cords) creates vibration
Glottis:
narrow glottis: voiced sound (air passed vocal folds vibrate)
open glottis: voiceless sound (passes without vibration)
closed glottis: glottal stop is produced (airstream stopped)
Consonants:
Classification: 1. place of articulation 2. Manner of articulation 3. State of glottis (voicing)

Screen Shot 2023-10-23 at 16.49.29.png
Screen Shot 2023-10-25 at 16.35.59.png
1
bilabial
Post-alveolar
velar
labio-dentals
Inter-dental
palatal
alveolars
2
[m] mouse
[ʃ] shoe
[k]coat
[f]fat
[θ]think
[j]yes
[t] to
3
[p]pat
[ʒ] vision
[g] goat
[v]vision
[ð]that
[d] do
4
[b]bat
[tʃ] chin
[ŋ] ring
[n] nice
5
[w] wet (labial-velar)
[dʒ] gin
[s] Sue
6
[z] zoo
7
[l] leap
8
[r] ride
There are no rows in this table
identify place of articulation Klausurfrage!!!
know all vocal organs Klausur!!

Obstruents
Plosives: stops Airflow is obstructed completely at one point and suddenly let go (little explosion), e.g. [p], [t]
Fricatives: Airflow pressed through a very narrow opening (friction), e.g. [f], [s]
Affricates: Brief obstruction of the air followed by a slow release that causes friction, e.g. [tʃ], [dʒ]
Sonorants
Nasals: Oral cavity closed, velum lowered so airflow passes through the nose, e.g. [m], [n]
Approximants/ liquids: Tip of the tongue touches alveolar ridge, air flows to the sides of the tongue, i.e.[l], [r]
Glides / semi-vowels Articulators do not touch, features of both vowels and consonants, i.e.[w], [j]

Vowels:
-altering position of tongue and the way the lips are positioned
-the most sonorous, because your mouth is as open as possible.
-(i) in cheese , sounds like you're saying y at the end : semivowel
-(u)-Quechua , sounds like w (double uu) : semivowel
length / rounded or not
hight& low - close& open

Screen Shot 2023-10-25 at 17.28.47.png
Screen Shot 2023-10-25 at 17.38.04.png
Monophthongs:
A vowel which remains constant and does not glide is called a pure vowel or monophthong.
Diphthongs:
result of a glide from one vowel to another.
diphthongs are like long vowels. The initial vowel is usually stronger and longer than the second.
Diphthongs are considered to be one vowel sound
Triphthongs:
glide from first to second to third vowel
third sound: schwa (upside-down e)
Tutorium website zum translaten von phonetics

Lecture 3

Phonology
Phonetics is the study of the characteristics of speech sounds
Articulatory Phonetics: the study of how speech sounds are made
Acoustic Phonetics: the phyiscal properties of speech as sound waves in the air
Auditory Phonetics: the perception of speech sounds in the ear
Screen Shot 2024-01-03 at 13.48.22.png
Screen Shot 2024-01-03 at 13.49.11.png
Why do we need all of these symbols?
IPA→ One sound is represented by one symbol (no other system)
The IPA chart contains representations of all sounds that are used by humans
IPA symbols are universal and apply to all languages of the world
Screen Shot 2024-01-03 at 13.51.50.png
Phonetics vs. Phonology
Phonetics:
the study of the characteristics of speech sounds
Phonology:
concerned with the description of the systems and speech patterns in a language
concerned with the abstract or mental aspect of the sounds in a language

Phoneme vs Phone
Phoneme:
A meaning-distinguishing sound in a language
They appear in slashes. /t/ phonemic, (mental or abstract) category, - in your mind
Phone:
Different versions of a sound type
They appear in square brackets. [t] [t ͪ]
allophonic (phonetic) realisations, - what you actually say
Different speakers produce the same sound slightly differently
(Compare /t/ in stop [stɒp] and top [t ͪɒp])
Allophones→
Screen Shot 2023-10-30 at 16.49.09.png
Phonemic distinctions:
in a language can be tested by contrasting pairs or sets of words with each other
These words must have in common that they only differ in one sound that is in the same position
[sɪp] [tɪp]. [rɪp] [dɪp] [lɪp]
illustrate that /z/ is a phoneme in English
/z/ can be exchanged for /s/
[zɪp] - [sɪp]

Complementary distribution (Allophones)
Screen Shot 2023-10-30 at 16.56.10.png
[pʰ] when it is the syllable onset + followed by a full vowel (e.g. pit)
[p] occurs in all other situations (e.g. spark, tip)
The Phoneme inventory
list of all meaning-distinguishing sounds in English
/i/ /p/ /o/ /n/ /k/ /l/ /d/ /t/ etc.

!A syllable must at least contain a vowel (including diphthongs)!
Screen Shot 2024-01-03 at 14.03.11.png
Syllables with an onset and a nucleus, such as go, to or no, are considered open syllables
Syllables that have a coda, such as it or rip, are called closed syllables
Want to print your doc?
This is not the way.
Try clicking the ⋯ next to your doc name or using a keyboard shortcut (
CtrlP
) instead.