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This page contains snippets from the Member States’ position paper submitted prior to the conference. This page will be updated following every committee session to factor in the Delegate’s perspective.
Argentina assures its position as an advocate of the peaceful use of outer space, as well as a leader in the development of domestic space programs for nations around the world.
The Outer Space Treaty was signed in 1967, through which the general legal basis for the peaceful uses of outer space were established. However, this treaty lacks imperative positions that resolutions A/RES/55/122 about International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and A/RES/59/115 on the topic of what does it mean to be a “launching State” have addressed.
To avoid making outer space a combat zone, Argentina will promote the following scopes: (i) regulations to the technology that is being settled on space, (ii) environmental guidelines to avoid the spread of more space debris, and (iii) a rigorous tracking on the production of space technologies.
Primarily focus efforts and put forward interest in space technology while safeguarding sovereign interest in the rise of modern day weaponization by powerful countries
A distinguished power discrepancy exists due to the abysmal military strength difference.
Possible beginning of a new war - Spatial War
Armenian delegation pushing towards cooperation between the underdeveloped countries
Mentions Countries that have concentrated on weaponizing their space technology > France, the United States, and North Korea
The goal is to allow space exploration and technology growth but to restrict any threat imposed by another country.
1) Implement programs emphasized on technology, as this is what leads satellites and other spatial devices;
2) Tracking their positioning in space and
3) Evaluating whether such instruments can be considered a threat or not.
Seeking to encourage peaceful uses of outer space.
Promoting opportunities for new industries while highlighting lack of transparency by nations on their projected aspirations in Space Weaponization.
Aims to regulate outer space for necessary allowance of the development of research and technological knowledge.
Australia firmly believes that developing nations should not be restricted from space enabled services calling attention towards high costs of developing and launching aircraft > to space.
1) Embracing a “New Space” agenda in 2016 > Granting more than three-quarters of the US$345 billion global space economy.
2) Australian Space Agency was founded with the purpose of leading the country’s international space engagement along
3) Formed Australian Civil Space Strategy 2019-2028
The Commonwealth of Australia proposes the creation of the “International Space Alliance'' branching program of UNOOSA which will be beneficial :
1) To promote the research, exploration, and development of outer space-related affairs
2) Integration of developing economies into the space industry by allowing them access and leverage the benefits of space through two main platforms: its Launcher and its Research Center.
Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1957, that spread all over the world led to 2019’s ‘Anti-Satellite test in India’, a ‘Strategic Support Force in China’ and an ‘independent Space Force in Russia’
Brazil believes that it is best if delegates from different countries cooperate and observe each other to complete the task and secure peace.
Because of pressure from the United States of America regarding the demilitarization of space and a change away from military government
Established a national programme in the 1960s, a movement that constituted an organization called - the “Organization Group of the National Commission of Space Activities''.
Furthermore created a civilian Brazilian Space Agency (BEA) in 1994.
Create a unified South American Space Agency by 2025
Brazil has three plans to reduce the gap in living standards between people living in developed countries and those who live in developing countries.
Suggest setting a deadline on launching satellites for each country
Limit the number of satellites for each country
Launch a satellite that is controlled by between 5 and 15 Member States elected on 3 to 5 year terms that works to remove space debris made from space junk floating in space now
Cameroon acknowledges the increasing significance of the militarization of space, even in countries that would not be part of the conflict, are at risk.
Although Cameroon does not have a national space program yet, there is growing engagement in activities relating to the use of modern technologies.
In 2018, the African Union, of which Cameroon is a proud founding member, adopted the Statute of the African Space Agency..
Signed various resolutions relating to the maintenance of peace.
The militarization of space is a serious threat to the scientific achievements and the Republic therefore supports a strict ban on weapons in space
Stricter measures to secure peace and welfare on Earth.
A ban on all military use of space, including the installation of defense missiles and satellites used for espionage.
All beneficial applications of outer space are constantly threatened by space debris.
Strongly against the weaponization of space and willing to mediate between States with severe political relations
Rejects US development and testing of weapons in outer space.
First country to operate a domestic commercial communications satellite system.
Recognizing the posing threats in the outer space landscape, in 1990, Canada formed the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).
Considers that regulation on anti-satellite weapons would have urgently needed implications for international security.
Supports the non-aggressive use of outer space, through initiatives that suggest a step-by-step approach to address space security.
To try to de-militarize space would be futile, the militarization has already occurred, and has been acknowledged by the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
China’s most important alliances throughout will be the ones who align with the interests of China and Russia
Clarifications on the difference between militarization and weaponization of space should be made by the U.N committee.
The differences with the U.S. and the border and economic clashes with India and Japan may influence China’s stance on some agreements
Lack of clear definitions and regulations on space warfare, and the lack of prevention of space debris, could result in catastrophic repercussions.
Implement manned spaceflight
Expedite the development of space endeavors
Strengthen research into key and cutting-edge technologies
Lunar exploration, the Beidou Navigation Satellite System, high-resolution earth observation system, new-generation launch vehicles and other important projects.
Measures need to be implemented so space does not become a battleground
Recent anti-satellite weapons (ASATs) tests from India, China and USA and implementation of an American Space Force
China’s increase in rocket launches, surpassing USA, and the emergence of dual-use objects in space supports the assumption of an arms race
Colombia emphasizes the imperativeness of international cooperation
Recognizing the urgency of addressing climate change and preventing space warfare, Colombia urges states to convert their efforts towards productive and efficient research
Actively finding solutions to encourage transparency and confidence-building measures
Held international forums on the technological progress and legal challenges in space
Ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and of treaties respecting the flow of communications through satellites, such as the BRS, ITSO and IMSO,
Delegation of Colombia suggested monitoring of space activities
Leader in drafting the program, reaffirming the need for long-term sustainability in space
Inclusion of clause III.1.4, encouraging investments in the space industry (SMEs) to benefit the economy and the quality of life
Involved in the drafting of the Bogotá Declaration, reaffirming equal access of all states to space
Universal convention on international space law (built on 5 UN Treaties on Outer Space and PAROS)
prohibit the militarization of space
outline governments’ and private industries’ responsibilities
determine punishments upon infraction
promote the usage of space solely for scientific and developmental purposes.
An international space agency with equal voting powers, overseen by the UN, should be created
free of all political influences and focused on ensuring transparent exchange of information
sub-bodies would be charged with 1) disseminating scientific and technological discoveries, 2) resolving disagreements and conflicts between states.
Inclusion of astronomy and space technology in the curriculum throughout K-12 and higher education, particularly at law schools.
Support initiatives in favor of disarmament, as well as regulations for military projects
Divide between wealthier and economically weaker states concerning development of space programs
Potential of future warfare arising from weaponizing of outer space
OST -> use of outer space for “peaceful purposes.” In the last decade, this directive was broken many times, including the shooting-down of satellites by China in January 2007 and India in March 2019
In 2017, the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency, EXA was founded as the first ever space agency in the country
Launched two satellites and developed the first microgravity plane in Latin America.
Will continue to contribute to several international space missions - eg, for Spacebit UK - as the primary contractor for developing a robot that will walk on the moon in the second half of 2021
Cooperation among space agencies
Countries in South and Central America must have their own space agencies and research facilities
Restrict the construction and usage of outer space weapons
Strict regulation of existing and yet-to-be-developed weapons of mass-destruction
Support a strong regulatory framework so as to deter and prevent potential malicious and belligerent acts in outer space
Willing to see the highest degree of compliance possible with principles set in international law to ensure respect of international norms.
Estonia relies on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) for its security since the 2007 cyberattacks
Estonia is currently testing with the imminent launch of its second satellite ESTCube-2 on technologies that would reduce space debris ( plasma brakes and solar veil propulsion systems for satellites).
The Estonian space strategy for the 2020-2027 period prioritizes the issues of cybersecurity, AI and e-governance.
A new regulatory framework that would allow peaceful exploration of outer space
Banning weapons in space, with the exception of self-defense.
International cooperation and the respect of international norms
Three main problems - space debris, political tensions, and vague use of space technologies.
Arms race is a global threat.
We support the development of space technologies such as communication devices, reconnaissance satellites, and GPS.
Ethiopia has recently struggled with civil wars and political instability.
Although we cannot send satellites to space with our means, we want to reach this technology soon.
We need serious financial support and technology infrastructure to reach this technology.
International cooperation in space programs is critical for us.
Our foremost priority is to prevent an arms race in space.
Space should be cleared of all kinds of weapons and instruments with a destructive effect.
The work of the countries with space power should be made transparent through UN agencies.
The weaponization of space has increasingly become an issue of concern. Disarmament and international security are necessary to achieve sustainable development.
Nuclear proliferation, chemical and biological weapons, an arms race in outer space remain critical issues
Each year the international community relies ever more on space-based technology for defense, civil, and commercial purposes.
Finland is advocating for a voluntary set of rules regarding matters such as space debris and operation of crafts or space satellites.
Regulate and control the destructive behavior of nations rather than attempting to limit their technology.
A means to monitor, adjudicate, and enforce responsibilities.
A standing committee to provide a credible, knowledgeable, and equitable forum for regulating, monitoring, and adjudicating claims and disputes relating to the damage caused by objects launched into space, whether they are designed for destruction or not.
One of the most vocal nations on developing better defenses in space, having announced publicly that it intends to field non-kinetic space-to-space weapons to defend its satellites.
No agreements exist today that completely limit space weapons.
France aims to improve Space Situational Awareness (SSA), step up active and passive measures to protect satellites, and create a more comprehensive set of rules that limits space weapons and promotes self-defense for satellites.
Blinding and Directed-energy Weapons in Space
Space Warfare & Space Debris
Repercussions of Space Warfare on Earth
The European Defence Fund can be used for security-related space capabilities
NATO can be used for a larger space policy that would enhance transatlantic security
Military space operations to:
preserve freedom of access in space,
discourage and thwart action by any ill-intentioned third party,
Develop more efficient Space Situational Awareness by supplementing the surveillance component by permanent tracking of space launches and objects placed in orbit.
Formulate a Global Code of Conduct for Militarization in Space
Outer Space Treaty only prohibits the national appropriation of outer space and the celestial bodies, which leaves open the possibility of an individual or private association lawfully appropriating any part of outer space.
Germany is committed to prevent an arms race in outer space, which has always been proven by our actions on the resolutions by the first and fourth committee of UNGA.
From 1967, Germany has been a firm supporter of the Outer Space Treaty
Reduction of Space debris - a Space Junk Mitigation System to track and regulate the space junk flow, in which Germany would share its Space Junk Tracking System.
Germany recommends to the UNSC to adopt a unified charter to prevent the unregulated use of outer space by private corporations.
Germany discourages any form of Research on Space and Celestial weapons
OST -> safeguard and prevent weapon use
Many countries found loopholes within the treaty and proceeded with their space armament. This raised international tensions regarding the weaponization and militarization of outer space.
Currently owning 4 fully functional satellites and cooperating with EU agencies, like the European Space Agency (ESA) and EUMETSAT, Greece made European Union its strongest ally.
Greece has participated in the Conference of Disarmament in Geneva since 1979, with no interest in weaponization.
Disarmament in outer space is a Greek ambition, but on the other hand the militarization is useful for defensive and preventative purposes only.
In cooperation with the UN, countries should explain the cause of their militarization. This way countries wouldn’t compete with each other to gain sovereignty and tend towards a peaceful environment.