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2.5 - 2.6 stem cells
2.14 enzyme practical
2.33 food energy practical
2.40 - 2.45 plant gas exchange
2.53 - 2.58 plant transport
2.63 - 2.64 vaccination and clotting in detail
2.70 - 2.79 excretion and the kidney
2.81 homeostasis
2.86 hormone vs. nerves
2.95 ADH, LH, FSH
3.1 - 3.7 plant reproduction
2.86, 2.89, 2.91 - 2.94 Nervous system
4.1 - 4.5 biodiversity and field work
5.12 - 5.20 food production, selective
breeding, GM, cloning
1.1 - 1.4 variety and characteristics of life
2.1- 2.4 cells
2.7 - 2.13 molecules
2.15 - 2.17 movement in and out of cells
2.18 - 2.23 photosynthesis
2.24 - 2.32 diet and digestion
2.34 - 2.39 respiration
2.46 - 2.50 breathing and gas ex.
2.51 - 2.52 principles of transport
2.59 - 2.62 blood
2.65 - 2.69 heart and circulation
2.80 - 2.82 response to stimulation
2.83 - 2.85 plant tropisms
2.87, 2.88, 2.90 - 2.94 Nervous system
3.8 - 3.13 human reproduction
3.14 - 3.39 inheritance and evolution
4.6 - 4.9 food chains
4.10 - 4.11 carbon and nitrogen cycles
4.12 - 4.18 pollution

Breathing and Gas Exchange

Name and describe all the organs
1. Larynx, trachea and rings of Cartilage
protects lower airways. where air goes through. rings of cartilage prevent the trachea from closing
2. Bronchi, Bronchioles and Alveoli
air splits through all these different pathways, the smallest being the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs
3. Pleural membranes and Pleural fluid
pleural membranes surround the lungs, and it’s protected from sticking into the ribcage by the pleural fluid surrounding them
4. Diaphragm, intercostal muscles and ribs
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles expand and contract to change the volume capacity of the lungs, causing breathing. the ribs protect the lungs from being damaged
Understand the role of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in ventilation
Breathe In Diaphragm and External Contract
Breathe Our Diaphragm and External Relax
Alvioli Adaptations
1. moist, allows gas exchange to occur
2. number of them gives for more surface area
3. one cell thick, short distance for diffusion
4. good supply of blood and oxygen to maintain diffusion gradient
Effects of Exercise in breathing and the release of carbon dioxide
exercise means that more glucose needs to be used for energy, meaning there is a higher demand for oxygen to release the energy. Breathing rates increase to receive more oxygen, turning it into carbon dioxide through respiration. since respiration rates are higher, the release of carbon dioxide also increases
How to carry out an experiment about the release of CO2
breathe through a tube connecting two test tubes. lime water is placed in both. the test tube where air enters remains clear, while the test tube where air goes out turns cloudy - a positive result for the presence of carbon dioxide.
Effects of Smoking (4)
1. Increase of risk of pulmonary infections
tar damages the cilia and mucor. these two cells produce mucus to trap pathogens and sweep them down the the stomach to be killed by the acidity.
2. Emphysema
the breakdown of alveoli reduces surface area, thus making it harder for gas exchange to occur and obtain oxygen.
carbon monoxide binds with the red blood cells, not allowing the oxygen to bind. heart rate increases to make up for the lack of oxygen, which can damage capillaries and increase the risk of coronary heart disease
contains radioactive substances that increase the risk of mutations

Food and Digestion

Describe the digestive system
Mouth and Salivary Glands
teeth break down the food so it can be swallowed and increases surface area so it can be digested quicker. moist also helps it travel down the oesophagus
salivary glands secrete AMYLASE to break down starch
tube through which the food travels, is elastic and contains muscles to push it downwards
Stomach, pancreas
stomach is very acidic, kills all pathogens, bacteria. pancreas secrete protease, an enzyme which digests protein, whose optimum PH is 2 due to its acidity
Gall Bladder, Duodenum (small intestine)
gall bladder produces bile, which neutralises the food from the stomach as it is acidic as it is alkaline. it also emulsifies fat into smaller droplets in order to increase surface area to make the enzymes work more quickly. Lipase and other enzymes are excreted from the pancreas
Ileum lining
containing villi, one cell thick lining in the ileum covered by microvilli in order to increase surface area. have blood capillaries inside to shorten the distance of the nutrients and the blood, then transferred into the entire body. also contain mitochondria to move and match the concentration gradient, facilitating diffusion through active transport
Large intestine and rectum
absorption of remaining water to create a solid feces of undigested material, then excreted through the rectum.
Elements present in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
hydrogen, carbon, OXYGEN for both carbs and lipids,
protein is made of amino acids » hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur
Tests for Starch, Glucose, Protein, Lipids
add iodine, initially orange, later turns BLUE BLACK
Identify the sources and uses of carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins A, B, C and D, mineral ions, water and dietary fibre
used for obtaining energy, found in wheats
used for the growth and repair of tissues, found in animal products and beans
used to store in the body? found in avocados and nuts
Vitamin A
used to prevent night blindness, helps with the retina. found in carrots
Vitamin B
used to prevent beri beri, found in meat and veggies
Vitamin C
used to prevent scurvy, found in fruits and vegetables.
Vitamin D
used to prevent rickets, source from sunlight
helps the hemoglobin bond with the oxygen in red blood cells, preventing anemia. found in meat
helps preventing rickets and weak bones, found in dairy
needed by many parts of the body, including the brain.
Dietary fibre
helps with digestion, cellulose and found in most plants
How is food moved through the gut
a process called peristalsis in the walls of the gut,
the longitudinal muscles (external ) and circular muscles (internal ) contact and expand in order to move food along the gut

Coordination and Response

Understand how organisms are able to respond to their environment
through the nervous system: based on the brain, spinal chords and nerves that perceives and reacts to changes in the environment
What does a coordinated response look like and what is the central nervous system
stimuli » receptor neuron » COORDINATION CENTER » motor neuron » effector
stimulus: any perceivable change in the environment
receptor: organs in the body that are able to perceive the environment. eg skin, eyes, ears, nose, mouth
effector: muscles, organs that are able to move accordingly to respond to its environment
coordinating center (CNS): involves the brain and the spinal cord, where neurons fire
type of neurons:
- motor neurons
describe the function, structure and adaptation of a simple reflex arc.
adapted to make the response faster, automatic and protective, thus avoiding danger.
does not involve the coordination of the brain
stimulus » receptor neuron » relay neuron » motor neuron » effector

Blood and circulation

Why can unicellular organisms can rely on diffusion
they have a high surface area to volume ratio, meaning their nutrients can diffuse easily through the entire cell. larger beings have a low surface area to volume ratio, thus a need for a transport system, as diffusion is not efficient enough
The structure of the circulation and heart
double circulatory
VEINS = from the body to the heart
ARTERY = from the heart to the body
- pulmonary artery and vein
- vena cava and aorta,
- renal artery and vein
- hepatic artery and vein
Heart contains:
1. two ventricles (bottom)
2. two atria (top)
(4 chambers)
3. Valves
CARDIAC MUSCLE contracts and expands in order to pump the heart.
Factors that may cause Coronary heart disease
1. smoking
2. lack of exercise
3. hereditary and genetic
4. stress
5. diet
6. high blood pressure
Effect on heart rate of adrenaline and exercise
exercise demands more oxygen for the muscles in order to break down the glucose for energy.
the heart will have to obtain oxygen by the lungs at a faster rate, thus raising heart beat.
secretion of adrenaline for the adrenal glands also causes a quicker fast rate, as it helps the body be prepared for a fight of flight response.
controlled by the MEDULLA
How the structure of capillaries, arteries and veins relate to their function
thick muscle and elastic tissue
to stretch and recoil to support high blood pressures. to control the blood flow by widening or contricting
thin muscle and elastic tissue, containing valves
no need for thick muscles due to low blood pressure, valves prevent it from going backwards
one cell thick
provides a very short distance for diffusion as it is close to every cell in an organ
Describe the Composition of Blood
1. Plasma
Liquid part of the blood: carries nutrients, other blood components, urea, hormones, HEAT
2. Red Blood cells
carry oxygen. adaptations:
- small, can squeeze through tiny capillaries
- hemoglobin binds with the oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin
- no nucleus gives more space for the hemoglobin
- biconcave shape, squeeze
3. White blood cells
designed to eliminate pathogens and protect the body
4. Platelets
parts of other cells that are broken, serve to close open wounds. Blood clotting: prevents blood loss and entrance of pathogens.
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