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THEMES

General Summary

This page brings the notes from each speaker

PRESENTATION_SUMMARY
0
SPEAKER
TITLE
NOTES
1
Alexis GILBART
The productive city, emergence of a thematic in favor of a balanced and sustainable urban development
Approach
Reduce the human footprint on the global scale ecosysteme
Goals
Reduce “soil artificialization” (artificialisation des sols) and limit the expansion or urbanisation by 2050
Solution evaluated
Introduce the concept of economic geography (link between urban/rural, heory of core and periphery). Find a balance between local and global production scale which takes into account a sustainable economic growth and environmental footprint
Comments
Etudier les activités de production
éviter d’étaler le betonnement
Analyse
Analyse des processus de deconnection → les centre-villes et ruraux ont perdu la fonction de production car
relocalisation des activités économiques
transformation du tissue économie
cause urbaine → produire des activités qualitatives
Quelle place a l’activité économique
economie circulaire
économie territoriale
Villes productives
Bruxelle & Vienne
construit autour du cannal
premiers projets en cours: pas uniquement privé, mais fondd publiqued ou régionaux (ou européens)
Etudes en cours menées pour valider l’impact sur l’activité de production
Objectif


Remarks

Questions during session



Notes
Urbanisme circulaire

Les centres sont soit commerciaux, soit résidentiels, mais ne sont plus de production (manque de place, nuisance).
Quelle place pour les activités productives dans la ville de demain?

Villes productives ou territoires productifs? les échelles sont multiples, le terme “territoire” est mieux adapté. Ce sont toujours les friches qui sont considérées comme espaces productifs et non les espaces commerciaux existant.




2
Giancarlo ALCIATURI
Geographic space and Big Data: an analysis about fundamentals and applications. Case of study: rice crop mapping. Laguna Merin Watershed, Uruguay.
Approach
Introduce the big data to the field of geography
Goals
Big Data applications are intended to solve environmental and space complex issues with high spatiotemporal dynamics
Solution evaluated
Use of the availability of data to solve complex challenge through AI. For instance, use AI with Sentinel 1 (S1) imagery supervised classification to boost rice harvesting. Why AI → Rice crops mapping is a challenging task due to its high phenological dynamics
Comments
To develop a theoretical outline intended to expose,some fundamentals of Big Data applied to geographic space analysis.
To identify Big Data based methodologies for analyzing the spatial phenomenon, particularly such alternatives connected to Geographic Information Technologies (GIT).
To identify some Remote Sensing Big Data-based free access tools to map environmental variables.
To map rice crop areas for Merin's Lagoon watershed in Uruguay by using Sentinel 1 imagery.
Theory
Physical subfields: Climatology, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, biology, soil sciences.
Human subfields: Sociology, demography
Human-physical interaction: Environmental dimension, urban interaction, agricultural dynamics and so many.
Data:
gps/geo
Can we use big data for environmental analysis
How can the mapping be relevant in helping society reach these targets?
In general, GIT's and represented elements, will support indirectly or directly, the understanding of geographical distribution of SDG.
Method
Bibliographic research
Field surveying
Sentinel 1: Supervised classification

Study area
Lagoa Mangueira
High biodiversity
RAMSAR
Forest production
Rice crop production
Seasonal tourism (south hemisphere summer)
Frequently cloud covered
Fact about rice
Is a major food staple and a mainstay for the rural population and for household food security.
Is of special importance for the nutrition of large reaches of the population in Asia parts of Latin America and the Caribbean and, increasingly so, in Africa.
One of the most popular food in the world.
Uruguay is one of the most important exporters.
Solution
To tackle cloud cover: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) supervised classification & Big Data processing in the cloud.

Remarks

Questions during session
What is supervised classification
how do you tackle time component in your analysis
3. Tool used to run algorithm

Notes

3
Emilie ETIENNE
The future of solar projects: a socio-economic research on the autonomy of off-grid solutions in emerging countries
Approach
Think about the long-term!
Goals
Question the conditions to make success last instead on solely concentrating on achieving one-off targets by 2030.
Solution evaluated
Solar mini-grids for electricity access: I study how mini-grids evolve over time, adopting longitudinal, multi-scalar and socio-technical approaches. In other words, I look at mini-grids ecosystems’ evolution in the medium and long term, with three research areas: (i) governance, (ii) payments & economic autonomy and (iii) maintenance & technological aspects.
Comments
time is not taken into account
Research areas
governance
payments & economic autonomy
maintenance and techno aspect
interaction between techno and human
infrastructure are fragile, they also need maintenance
uses and users
practice theory
methodology
different scales
country specific
look at at the funding agency and how they are shaping sustainability of rural electrification
look at the migrant work => use of remittances to help others pay for electricity
Results
principal agent problem => not transparent, lack of information so cannot monitor
payment and econ autonomy
financial viability => install mini grid only if costs are covered, with high focus on risks
demand
policy changes => withdrawn of the policy
competition
User ability to pay
some actors will say the price for mini grid is not expensive (less than other resources) but other say poorest cannot afford it (from interview)
consumer who are richer could pay more to subsidies the poorest (cross-subsidies)
Techno aspect
the way mini-grid are founded is not neutral
ex: with results-based financing, companies can get money from the amount of electricity connections they give, not on the continuity of electricity services => use low quality equipment to save costs




The third speaker, Emilie Etienne, present to us, a project she had in mind since her work in project management in Africa and South America and can be summarized by “What happen after the end of the project?”. To study this question, Emilie focalizes on mini-grid and solar home systems from a broad socio-technical perspective at different scales and different times and by studying the governance and the emergence of new partnership and form of regulation, the economic autonomy notably in the rural zone and the technical sustainability of the project. The results of the interview show that the social aspect needs to be tackled because of the possible inequality of product access whereas the technical aspect proves that it’s needed to think about the way mini-grid are financed which is not neutral.
Remarks

Questions during session
how did you choose your case study



Notes

4
Auriane MEILLAND
“Is every country taking its fair share?” A survey on international climate justice
Approach
Is every country taking its fare share? Use normative data (survey) from France and the US to evaluate the fair character of individual contributions.
Goals
we aim at providing insights for a legitimate collective judgement on what a country’s fair Nationally Determined Contributions should be
Solution evaluated
Policy-oriented: we provide first insights on how citizens perceive equity rules to assess the fairness of countries’ NDCs, in order to legitimize or improve some of them. This approach could then inform other situations at different scales - how to share emissions reduction among regions, sectors, businesses and improve their acceptability

Comments
It is suprising to see that France and the US citizens have relatively similar perceptions. What are your hypothesis to explain this convergence of collective judgements?

This morning we had 4 very interesting presentations on the energy for all thematic, first by Auriane Meilland who estimate how people from different countries can value or not the different public policies that could challenge climate change. For the moment, it seems that people from France and the USA, people representative of those countries, agree on a cosmopolitan policy with a shared responsibility between all countries. As pointed by Emilie Etienne, Americans and French share the same opinion, it will be really interesting to know what it will be when the questions will be asked to Chinese or Indian, as planned by Auriane Meilland.




Remarks
Paris Approach is bottom up approach
set by country itselt
Policy improve conclusiveness without mititgate ambition
solution legitimate stakeholder
Methodology: survey
randomized results
Result:
should be determinate at the international level
in both countries: all countries should tackle climate change
largest favoured principle
convergence
operational grandfathering
coordination game
No results about the share of countribution


Questions during session
Is the respondents representative of the population => treated vs non treated group
Results probably bias
It is suprising to see that France and the US citizens have relatively similar perceptions. What are your hypothesis to explain this convergence of collective judgements?
did you investigate whether there were differences by gender, age or other variables? (and not only the country of residence) ?


Notes
Using optimization of batteries to oprimize DC energy consumption => what about the sourcing of materials to produce the batteries (ecological disaster, major issue)? Solution seems “too good to be true” => how can major actors such as Amazon, Google & Co implement it asap? This could be an opportunity for emerging countries (solar panels) to develop their economy.



5
Filomena BORECKA
The air we share and the experience of breathing
Approach
The air we share and the experience of breath through art (survey = work of art)
Goals
breathing, testimonies, life rhythms: invisible air = vital food, free exchange
air pollution
limitation of private interests in the name of the common good
Solution evaluated
to give an account of the "feeling of the breath" and to grasp how people live their "breath" from day to day through the diffusion of the work and the survey
= responses thus bring out the hidden and the unseen, the untold potential contained in the expressed response. The people who freely participated in this survey were led to question the rhythm of their lives, sometimes to the point of emotion, which reveals subjectivity on a conscious and unconscious level.

Comments

Remarks
breathing, testimonies, life rhythms: invisible air = vital food, free exchange
air pollution
limitation of private interests in the name of the common good

Questions during session



Notes

6
Audrey ROCHAS
Gamification: from individual empowerment to environmental engagement
Approach
Use gamification (strategic attempt to enhance systems, services, organisations and activities in order to create similar experiences to those experienced when playing games in order to motivate and engage users) to o increase engagement towards sustainability
Goals
Global awareness is well accepted by the population, but actions and behaviours are not changing. It might be the time to look for different approach → to adopt new behaviors to replace the actual ones
Solution evaluated
Gamification offers possible lines of approach based on game mechanics
designed to create new habits.

Use of a points, badges, leaderboards system to understand the environmental impact of an individual’s action and how to change the behaviour (implementing good habits compensates for bad ones)
Comments

Remarks
climatic emergency
different type of actors can change behaviours
industry: corporation*NGO
individual
stockholm conference:
taking actions toward fisheries or other sustainable dev -base on sponsors to raise money
individuals are the key to make changes happens
impact on regulation through their votes
impoact on corporaation through their condumption
impact on ngo through donation and action
how can we engage individuals to support NGO
with time
skill
money

theoretical
gamification: drive the player (intrisec motivation)
engagment = when the brain is rewarded
education: gamification is used to help to remember
work in corporation too
motivayion - growin skills
empowerment: learn to do things, and having the choice to make a decision
mind mapping: three esssays of gamification
purpose
knowledge
social
adress both donators and other people to donate to NGO
hypothesis/hypothesis
provide right information to people about environment to change the behviour and push people to be part of an NGO
use survey
each week new information
challenges: behaviour are not perfect butare rewared
people have way to change their habit and can see how they evolve
results
135 students
students have earnt more points over time
most pf the students have changed their behaviour over time
competition between users and leaderboards push user to do more
Next steps
study the results from t0 to t5
understand which types of actions have evolve over time




Audrey Rochas shares with us the preliminary results of her project which aim to resolve one of the big problems of sustainable development, how to engage individuals into more sustainable behaviors? The idea is that through brain reward it is possible to increase the engagement of the individual. The way to motivate the individual could be through the game, its gamification. Audrey Rochas presents us her project, “Green Powered”, which allows individuals to learn information on the environment and the habits which could harm it, through game mechanisms. The aim is to evaluate if, through this play, the individual will change his behavior and habits. The first results are quite encouraging.
Questions during session
could you tell us more about which habits are you mesuring ?
if you are measuring other psychological mecanisms (self-efficacy, intentions) ?
Do you think it could be interesting to test this game with other profiles of participants (not only business school students)?
Do you have differents results by gender, social profile?


Notes

7
Subham MUKHERJEE
Urban water security: issues, challenges and research needs
Approach
SDGs allude to the multidimensionality and crucial importance of water security to achieve sustainable development and underlines the need for a holistic approach → close attention to SDG’s 6: clean water and sanitation for all people
Goals
Educate and communicate about the challenge faced by mega-city in developing world about the availability of water. The bottom-line goal would be to provide and improve the governance response frameworks for allocation and management of urban water
Solution evaluated
Understand the use and evolution of land in a given urban area (in developing countries large cities)
Understand the rising challenges faced by those cities (population growth, scarcity of public goods, etc)
Find a coherent model to understand the trajectory of water security in the long run, given the current situation
Comments
Objective
urban water security
To develop much deeper understanding of issues related to water security in Kolkata (as a case study)
Urban water security
SSD 6
Ensuring water supply,
quality
ecosystem
availability
accessibility
safely and in good quantity
Equitable access
Sustainable economies and societies
Human rights, good governance and social justice
Water security brings 14 SDD
All issues are related to water → human being cannot survive without water
Scale issue
Micro: People
Macro: Profit → water is a good, and power → can bring justice
Meta: Planet → for individuals, it’s a basic need. It has to be respected
Vulnerability
Bio-physical factors
Social factors
most issues are neglected
Human rights
Exclusion
Poverty
Inequality
Social cultural dimension
Society
Education
Exclusion
Inter-religious
discrimination
Gender
Race
Migration
Culture
Intra-religion
discrimination
Norms/Traditions
Economy
Urban Poverty
Water Tax
Economic (in)dependence
Politics
Right to water
Right to equality
Governance
Policy
Institution
Management
Case study
Kolkata → small piece of land
Between 1980- 2014 the use of land has changed drastically
the water land is being smaller and smaller from 23% to 4%
Results
82.3% respondents are of general (upper) caste who have direct water supply in the house
An intersectional approach
power vs privilege
Key findinds
The area under wetlands has reduced comprehensively since 1980 due to the conversion of wetlands into various other classes such as urban settlements etc.
The quality of surface water bodies (such as river, lake, canal, and inland wetlands has deteriorated. The groundwater quality is still under control, but presence of arsenic, manganese and other metals are clear indication of urban expansion and related activities in the area
Lack of supplies associated with WaSH provisions in the underprivileged areas of Kolkata are also facing various issues back to regularity, quality, and quantity of supplied water. There is poor maintenance existing WaSH services including latrine facilities and the per capita allocation for a sustainable water security among the dwellers of these deprived pockets of this Indian mega city.
Perceived susceptibility of risks from contaminated water and lack of proper sanitation and hygiene needs to be addressed in the light of social exclusion factors.
By adding to our understanding of the importance of factors such as gender, religions, and knowledge of drinking water in slums the study analyses the links between both physical and social issues determining vulnerability and presence of deprivation associated with basic water security as human rights of these deprived slum communities.
Water is even more an issue because covid → people are dying because no water available
Recommandation
Urban planning
Policy recommendations
Sustainability & Sharing
Who is counted / seen?
Complex emergencies
Climate change
Behavioural change- i.e. water rationing
Address data gaps and disseminate findings
Remarks

Questions during session
Data from 2011, does it changed over time? Any improvement since then
do you also include a watershed approach in your study, considering that watershed is one of the most relevant scale when talking about water?
(indeed, watershed management impacts water quality, water availability, flood/drought risk management, with associated potential conflicts between upper and lower parts of the watershed).


Notes
Water (reliability) of enough quantity/quality for different uses (human, but also disaster risk reduction and ecosystem management).

Scale matters: planet, profit, people.

Case study in Kolkata, looking at land-use and land cover and access of different group of people to water, looking in particular at religion, nationality, gender.

Findings: wetlands have reduced, water quality is deteriorating, social exclusion factors.



8
Malundama succès KUTANGILA
Adding groundwater dimension to the understanding and management of shared water resources in the Sahelian region: case of Taoudeni Basin
Approach
How having sustainably manage groundwater resources, individually and collectively, compounded by the inability to predict climate change variables, significantly affects food production and water consumption.
Goals
contributing to the characterization of groundwater resources in the Sahel
region in order to help better decision-making for their monitoring and sustainable management (case of the southeastern edge of the Taoudeni basin
Solution evaluated
the methodology adopted is based on an integrated approach
combining among other techniques, hydrogeochemistry, isotope hydrology, statistics, hydrology and hydrodynamics coupled with hydrogeological modeling
Comments
Introduction
L’eau douce est essentielle → SDD 6 (accès a l’eau)
l’eau douce est emprisonnée dans les glaciers (75%)
445 aquifers shared by at least two states
a major international issue, with a strong potential for both tension and cooperation
40% of the African continent's surface is covered by transboundary aquifers
Issue
West Sahelian Africa disadvantaged
Lack of essential knowledge and technical capacity to sustainably manage groundwater resources, individually and collectively, compounded by the inability to predict climate change variables
Purpose: ADDING GROUNDWATER DIMENSION IN THE UNDERSTANDING AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATER RESOURCES IN THE SAHELIAN REGION
Case study
Le basin fait 1/5 de la surce du Burkina Faso
Literature review
Aquifers Geology and Hydrodynamics
forage avec une profondeur de 300 metres ou moins
Mais l’aquifers du bassin fait plus de 1000 mêtres, peut de comprehension de la zone
Uncertainties in recharge l estimation and mapping
Vulnerability to pollution
n’a pas encore été mené sur la zone d’étude
Spatial and temporal model of groundwater in relation to climate
Objectives
Characterize the geology and the hydrodynamics of the aquifers
comprendre le contenant avec le contenu
comment l’eau circule
Characterize, quantify and map the recharge and renewal rate
Assess the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution
Assess the impact of climate and environmental/changes on the renewal of groundwater
Methodology
Integrated approach combining among other techniques, hydrogeo-chemistry, isotope hydrology, statistics, hydrology and hydrodynamics coupled with hydrogeological modeling.

Remarks

Questions during session
Comment prendre en compte l’avancement du Sahara
Création d’un mur pour bloquer l’avancement sur l’avancement du Sahara, et comment le mur peut permettre préserver l’eau


Notes
La plupart de l’eau est stockée soit sous terre, soit par des glaciers. En Afrique sahélienne, il existe de nombreuses nappes souterraines transfontalières avec des risques de conflits liés à l’eau.



9
Tatiana JARAMILLO VIVANCO
Exploring breeding alternatives of edible insects in different species of palms of Amazonia forest
Approach
Sustainable food system → New food and food ingredients obtained
could provide nutrients and bioactive compounds, which helps people of all ages to achieve good health
Goals
seek breeding alternatives of edible insects in different species of palms of Amazonia forest to reduce the existing pressure on populations of certain palms, eliminating the intensive breeding of a single species and thus avoid its extinction and improving local communities’ conditions
Solution evaluated
Produce alternative food like chontacuro
Increase the awareness of people about the nutritional quality of foods
Comments
Study the biochemistry
Alternative breeding techniques
Breeding alternatives of edible insects in different species of palms of Amazonia forest.
Breeding technique
Lock down the palm for harvesting the leaves

Remarks
Très intéressante comme thématique. Au cameroun, nous avons ces chénilles spécifiques. Elles sont également très prisées par les populations locales. Brigitte

Notes

10
Brigitte nadege fleurette NGA ONDIGUI
The traditional Obom textile in Cameroon: between perpetuation and the requirements of sustainable development
Approach
Cameroon costume (specific traditional textile), forest fabric : vegetable fabric made from previously beaten bark, "obom" (Ekang people) = cultural pillar
Goals
ethno-product, conservation of natural and cultural heritage (local/global tourism) because "obom" = perverse effect (deforestation)
Solution evaluated
resort to the regeneration of species that involves their natural reconstitution to obtain the plant tissue "obom". Their regeneration can be envisaged by the creation of specific spaces
Comments
Objectif
Valoriser cet element du patrimoine camerounais qu'est ’obom
Determiner I'impact de sa perennisation en rapport avec les objectifs de developpement durable.
Repertorier les effets deleteres de son utilisation sur l'environnement.
Proposer des ebauches de solutions pour les limiter
Le Cameroun
256 ethnies
le question → Comment perenniser le legs ancestral qu'est l’abom et promouvoir ainsi certains piliers de developpement durable tout en preservant I'environnement en accord avec les recommandations de la cop 21?
L’Oboom
tenue vestimentaires des aïeux du Cameroun
Tient à la manière artisanale de faire le vêtement
Le vêtement est fait a partir d’une technique artistique
Techniques
Fait a partir des écorces
Produits dérivées
Realisations picturales
Realisations sculpturales
Les Elements d'architecture/decorations d’interieur
Les élements de design de mode (le vestimentaire et la maroquinerie)
Lien avec les ODD
économique: produire des richesses et reduction des richesses → ventes de produit
écologique: 100% bio → tiré de l’essence végétale, pas de transformation chimique
social: l obum est un bien culturel qui créer un tissu social entre les communautés
Impact sur l’environnement
Deforestation
désertification
disparition des espèces → destruction des forets, sans prise en compte de renouvellement des arbres
Changement climatique
Emission des gaz a effet de serre
Solutions
Regeneration des essences
Collaboration entre exploitants forestiers et artistes
Limitation des abattages
Creation des habitacles contenants des plants d essences
Conclusion
Legs ancestral et ontologie des peuples de la foret, I'obom necessite une mise en valeur optimale pour sa perennisation.
Remarks

Questions during session
Cela fait partie des missions de l'ONG L'homme et l'environnement qui a porté des actions à Madagascar et au Burkina Faso autour du corridor des éléphants. Cela fait-il partie de solutions qui pourraient être envisagées au Cameroun ?
quel arbre c'était ?
Est-ce que c'est aussi utilisé dans l'architecture ou dans des constructions? Est-ce que des artistes l'utilise autrement, peut-être d'une manière différentes que dans la décoration d'intérieur par exemple sculpture etc.
Et si tu as des noms d'artistes qui travaillent avec cet arbre ?


Notes
Focus on saving natural ressources by using them in a sustainable way to create an new economy. Here, the actions are integrating artists and loggers.



11
Charlotte DEBEUF
Carbon pricing in Africa and the Middle East
Approach
Feasibility carbon pricing in Africa and the Middle East
Goals
The objective is to uncover, investigate and understand the underlying mechanisms and conditions for the expansion and contraction of the global system of carbon pricing governance.

The implementation of carbon pricing policies is beneficial for the transition towards a low carbon economy, it is important to note that its feasibility is very country and context specific → Traditional carbon pricing such as a carbon tax that typically require a large amount of emissions and a sufficiently high GDP per capita, may not be suited for African countries, it could even worsen economic difficulties
Solution evaluated
Capacity development projects financed and provided by actors who have already gained experience with a given policy can be a decisive factor in supporting the diffusion of a policy into a jurisdiction
Comments
Carbon pricing policy:
carbon tax: Cap and trade: maximum emission allowed
not pay the tax, but need to transfert to green technology
Who use carbon pricing?
most developped countries
China and few countries in South America
Challenges because financial incentive
it has to fit as a all in one (global scale)
they can have a pollution heaven
Low and middle income country
how to implement such policy designated by modern economy
Senegal
why they want a carbon tax
the policy designed should be country specific for the low income country
GhG and GDP per capita are very important
Is the right policy for Senegal
important covariates
geography
previous colonizers
international pressure
issue:
influence of countries and international organization
Capacity development
enhance capabilities of a juridiction to take effective climate action
environmental level
individual level
organization level
policy diffusion
map all actors in the actors in Senegal network analysis
large buble shows activities




Then Charlotte Debeuf, present her study on the carbon pricing policy in Africa. Multiple factors could explain how an African country could decide to implement a carbon pricing policy, the geographical neighborhood, the influence from the colonizer countries, and the pressure from the international community. This project aims to investigate how the capacity development project can enhance the capability of jurisdiction to take effective action to mitigate climate change. Also, to understand how the policy diffuse, that Charlotte Debeuf will study specifically Senegal, and will map the mains actors in network analysis.
Remarks

Questions during session
What do you think about that the idea of inventing a property right to pollute is effectively a "privatization of air", which is a moral problem, given the growing importance of wealth inequalities.
Senegal seems to think about carbon schemes due to international external pressure. I would imagine that others african countries are also suffering from the same international pressure. So, why is Senegal taking a different approach compared with other african countries and considering entering into carbon schemes?
Pensez vous que la t. Carbone est une solution pour les pays africains (en prenant en compte l’intérêt du consommateur Final)
about taxes and subsidies, we have also to take into consideration that several african countries subsidize polluting fuels such as diesel. Maybe a solution could be first to remove those subsidies, and instead, subsidize renewable for example?


Notes

12
Miguel felipe SILVA VASCONCELOS
Green Energy Optimization on Cloud Computing Platforms
Approach
Optimizing the integration of renewable energy in the data center to reduce the environmental impact caused by the massive (and still growing) consumption of electricity by the cloud computing platforms.
Goals
Find sustainable and achievable solution to improve or optimise the energy consumption from the cloud providers.

Use model to evaluate/allocate the solar energy production to data center taking into account about the complexity of the network
Solution evaluated
Investigate how to manage the workload that cloud computing platforms receive, with Geographic Load Balancing and Server Consolidation techniques, aiming to maximize renewable energy utilization. For the evaluation, we will compare with other state-of-the-art solutions for the schedulers. Possible metrics: Total electricity consumption, green energy usage, time to find a schedule
Determine the ideal dimensions of batteries, that can be used to store renewable energy, and solar panels to attend to the demand of a data center, given that the manufacturing and operation of these devices also present a significant carbon footprint.

Comments
How could geopolitics hinder or favour geographic load balancing? I am thiking about countries who might not want to share their data centers with others for safety/spying issues for example; and, on the contrary, countries who share similar values and would therefore be more willing to take part into data management alliances.
Remarks
Optimize green energy for cloud computing
problem with data center => consume massive amount of energy and comes from non renewable resource
How to reduce environmental impact
go green but very difficult
challence
intermittency
not all the time daylight
Solution
scheduling
transfert resources
server consolidation
Geographic load balancing
move data center where higher use of renewable energy
Use energy storage devices
How to meet the demand of data center
solar panels
Batteries




The last speaker of the morning Miguel Felipe Silva Vasconcelos present his work on how to make the data center less electricity consumption and so more energy efficient. Indeed, data center consume a lot of electricity and the intermittency problematic require to find another way to reduce the pollution than just solar panel. The project of this thesis will be to help to find how it will be possible to evaluate and allocate the best possible way the production to data center across the world to minimize the pollution cost. The algorithm produced could be incorporated by cloud computing platforms and so reduce the electricity consumption.
Questions during session
What is your point of view about a parallel topic : Producing mining cryptocurrencies requires enormous electricity resources, according experts in digital, it is the next "ecological disaster"
what social/political factors could hinder or favour geographic load balancing? I am thiking for example about countries who might not want to share their data
What about the environmental cost of batteries? We know that sourcing the materials to produce them is a major issue today.


Notes
Using optimization of batteries to oprimize DC energy consumption => what about the sourcing of materials to produce the batteries (ecological disaster, major issue)? Solution seems “too good to be true” => how can major actors such as Amazon, Google & Co implement it asap? This could be an opportunity for emerging countries (solar panels) to develop their economy.



13
Claudia TERAN-ESCOBAR
InterMob's understanding of the factors influencing active mobility and sustainable development of a behavior change intervention targeting the mobility change
Approach
Understanding the geographical (distances, density, car’s possession), sociodemographic (age, gender, presence of children), and psychological (intention, habits, self-efficacy) obstacles and levers to active and sustainable mobility (biking, walking, taking public transport, carpooling)
Goals
Understand mobility behavior (why and in which contexts individuals engage in active and sustainable mobility), a survey was conducted in France (500 respondents) and, 12 individual interviews were carried with mobility experts (researchers, mobility advisors, consultants, cycling policy officers)
Effectively promote active and sustainable mobility in urban contexts (in Grenoble - France)
Solution evaluated
Implement hard levers (new infrastructure, free transport, economic incentive)
Implement soft levers (educating, habit formation, training, communication)
Combining hard and soft levers using experimental methodologies (randomized controlled trials) to verify the efficacity of these interventions: Intermob is a randomized controlled intervention targeting active and sustainable mobility, we will combine hard (free access to public transport and bikes) and soft levers (habits’ formation, personalized transport advice, goal setting) and follow participants’ mobility behavior during 24 months (using accelerometers, GPS, surveys and travel diaries)

Comments
why people changing commuting behaviour
Context
Sustainable development
Health:
Prevent non-transmissible diseases
Environment:
Diminish emissions of pollutants
In France 63% of trips are made in car → pollute air + source of physical inactivity
In France, 2.7% use bikes, 9.1% public transport and 23.5% are made by walk
biking reduce CO2 emissions
Solutions
hard and soft levers
Hard levers: Urban environment (e.g., development of bike express network, increased accessibility of ground transportation), Economical measures (financial assistance Or bonus; urban toll)
Soft levers: Informational/'sensibilisation campaigns (e.g., benefits of bicycle, risks of car-use)
Theory
Limits
Interventions on one-level factors: on hard lever
Soft interventions: focus attitudes plan and reality are different (obstacle)
No examination of why and when interventions are efficient
does not know or understand the results
Methodology
limits
Rare evaluation of the effects of the intervention: No measurement
Self-reported measures of mobility behaviors:
Aims:
understand the factors behind the change in behavior and help them to switch to a better behaviour
Understand mobility behavior : which geographical (density, distances, access to transports), sociodemographic (gender, age, presence of children) and psychological factors (intention, habits, self-efficacy) influence mobillity behavior
Effectively promote active and sustainable mobility in urban contexts (in Grenoble - France)
Change intervention
Do something to change behaviour:
interested in habit
Attitude
Perceived behavior control → do an individual has the skills or information to change
Social norms
Methodology
Survey
Geographical context (domicile's density, car's possession, transit pass, trip chaining, etc.)
Sociodemographic context (gender, number of children, socioeconomic status, etc.)
Psychological factors (intention towards active mobiity, self-efficacy, green identity, etc.)
Ask experts:
why people have different behaviour in commuting behaviour
Randomized controlled behaviour change intervention
Results
Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis
which factors are associated with active mobility
geography
sociodemographic factor
Psychological factors
Factor of active mobility
Thematic analysis
Motivations
Environnent, ecology
Physical contraints
Physical health
Social norms
Economic gains
Needed resources
Money, time
Social support
Work-related aspects
Territory (transports,
transport plans, digital
tools)
Self-regulation
Contexts obstructing active transport
Randomized
400 participants (randomized in control group/intervention group)
Habitual car drivers (at least 4 days a week)
Between 18 and 70 years old
Living and/or working in Grenoble
Motivated to change of mobility
6 months of Free access to transport/bikes
6 months of Behavior change intervention
2 meetings
Measuring behaviour
Accelerometers (physical activity)
GPS
Pollution captors
Mobility diary + questionnaires
Eight weeks spread over 24 months
Objectives
Evaluate the efficacity of our intervention (Kms driven by car, frequency of car use)
To quantify the benefits of mobility change (physical activity, exposure to pollution, quality of life)
To identify the levers and obstacles to mobility change
Remarks

Questions during session
do you think that the psychological/motivational factors that you found for mobility would be the same for other activities (for example: have more healthy diets, change consumption patterns...)?
Qu’elles sont les instruments de communication
est ce qu’ils vont amener a changer leur comportement
Percentage of active mobility →
what are your choice?
Do you have theoretical variables in your survey and do your data tells the story from a theoretical point of view
The coefficients are quite low
What is your control group?


Notes
Findings:
Geographical factors
Sociodemo factors
Psychological

Thematic analysis: motivations, needed resources, obstacles, contexts obstructing active transport
=> why people chose active or passive methodology?

Next steps: randomized controlled intervention, with self-reported reports as well as pollution captors, GPS. They will be followed during 2 years.



14
Alexia & christopher alexander ANTUOFERMO & KOSTRITSKY GELLERT
How to design the urban ecosystem ? Collective investigation/speculative fiction, “Les Visitaïres du futur”
Approach
-the neighborhoods in which we work continue to be ecosystems: through art, inhabiting the territory and the urban ecosystem = how to imagine other habitats and lifestyles for the future, other worlds from those that already exist ?
Goals
As poets and artists, how can we act in these transformations without being the bearer of an ideology or an overhanging vision on the actions already in place ? How to make dialogue between these imaginary, these narratives, these models, how to give them forms ? How to account for this complexity ?
Solution evaluated
-ecology in the urban environment does not simply imply how to build, "develop", a more "sustainable" future, but how to re-imagine our relationships, how to evolve in complex environments already present
-Concept of ecosophy (Arne Naess)
-Collective survey/speculative fiction, "Les Visitaïres du futur" = workshops like a temporal journey that invites the inhabitants to conceive the possible futures of their neighborhood and to reflect on its temporal trajectories.
Comments
Comment penser la transformation des systèmes
Comment les poètes et artistes peuvent s’inscrire dans le tissu local
comprendre les problématiques
développer plusieurs ateliers
comment penser l’avenir avec les ateliers
les visiteurs du futures connaissent plein de problèmes dans le future et viennent chercher des solutions dans les ateliers
Remarks

Questions during session



Notes

15
Mamadou alimou DIALLO
Where does the African continent stand five years after the Paris meeting on the climate ? Analysis of the situation in the shadow of Ivorian and Senegalese realities
Approach
The current regulation setting is not constraining enough to prevent global warming in the context of developing economies. A new adaptative approach (economic, financial and regulatory) shall be think or debate to reduce or achieve the Paris agreement goals
Goals
Increase the willingness of the state (in the context of African economies) to include environmental question in their economic development.
Solution evaluated
Use the current regulation framework in some African countries (Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal, Guinea) to provide tools to the policy maker to:
Fulfil its engagement
Fully reap the economic benefice of such transition toward a greener economy
Comments

Remarks
Then, Mamadou Alimou Diallo made an infidelity at his core subject thesis on the Organisation pour l'harmonisation en Afrique du droit des affaires to share with us on climate change, thank you for that. After a recap of the situation’s gravity of climate change and the importance of mitigating it, Mamadou Alimou Diallo explained why he is worried by the following of COP 21 in Africa, notably because of the opening of coal factory in Senegal and Cote d’Ivoire. From a hope perspective, he also explained why African countries could benefit from pro-climate regulation.
Questions during session



Notes
76% des Français pensent que le réchauffement climatique est aussi grave que la crise de la Covid-19. Quelle proportion consent à modifier ses habitudes quotidiennes pour aller dans le sens d’un impact inférieur ? (à rapprocher de la proportion de Français qui ne respectent pas la distanciation sociale)



16
Laurent ASSOULY
Digital sobriety or the step after sustainable development
Approach
Public–private partnership to evaluate and think a different approach between the digitalisation of the economy and the need of reducing the carbon footprint
Goals
Increase the awareness of digital overconsumption
educate the user to know how to visualise its data consumption and how much carbon footprint it emitted
Solution evaluated
Make an audit of the user’s consumption behaviour
Reinvent the approach of the digital world → more sustainable
Comments
I am not familiar with the Theory of Needs and would be glad to know more about it! Do you also take a “Practice theory” approach as defined by Elizabeth Shove?
Remarks
Global context
consumption and market economy
focus on supply and cleaner product
Sobriety and telco
improve energy performance => engineer approach
5G can reduce electricity consumption if we reduce our digital consumption
5G raises the question paradoxical effect of energy efficiency
Lower energy consumption per unit but increase in gross quantity
How to tackle rebound effect
Example flight
tax for short haul travel
If not GDP then what else
best health system
life expectancy
happiness index
Is market economy comptatible with ecology
Continuous progress vs abderitism (stop of progress)




Then Laurent Assouly presents us his thesis topic, sobriety. Sustainable development focuses on sustainable supply and cleaner products but not on production and consumption. Our mindset is shaped in a way that we want to maximize profit, sobriety is a path to think to preserve our world's limited resources. Laurent Assouly through the rebound effects explains notably why technology should be considered with caution to fight climate change because a cleaner and better production could lead to a rise in consumption which could overcome the positive effect.
Questions during session
Comment concilier progrès et réduction de la consommation ?
comment déterminer les biens et services dont nous avons réellement besoin, et sur quels indicateurs ?
comment définir et mesurer le progrès et le développement ?


Notes
Sustainable development also relies on our digital behaviors. Digital sobriety hasn’t been the rule, it is rather the opposite with more and more devices and services.



17
Ludovic MOUNOUSSAMY
Finance as a development actor? Growth, decline ... what objectives for tomorrow and on what indicators?
Approach
Use public–private partnership to think about different metrics to evaluate the impact of Environment, Social and Corporate governance.
Goals
Make the use of ESG metrics more relevant and evaluate the real impact for investment fund, firm’s raising money and the society.

Solution evaluated
Provide a concrete definition and goals for each ESG metrics and how to really evaluate the impact of sustainable finance → Is it all about green-washing or more gear toward real impact
Comments
Ludovic Mounoussamy, our first speaker of the afternoon on the theme “Think about human development”, give us a presentation on how finance could take his share of sustainable development. The aim was to propose a reflection on how finance could be a useful tool and a motor of the sustainable development path. For that, it is needed that companies should be the core of the social transformation and by extension sustainable development can’t be achieved without public-private partnership. Also, the Environment, Social and Corporate governance metrics should be more used to evaluate the real impact for the investment fund and when a firm is raising money. But above all, Ludovic Mounoussamy calls for a global and multidisciplinary reflection on what is the best path and even what “best” means.
Remarks

Questions during session



Notes
Investments in sustainability represented 15% (33 billion euros) in France in 2019. Is it a sign of an evolution or basic greenwashing from investors? Are there any encouragements (incitations) to invest in sustainability? IPE (indice de performance environnementale) vs. PIB Croissance soutenable plutôt que durable et développement soutenable plutôt que durable => let’s used the word “sustainable” rather than “durable” in French (soutenable vs. durable).



18
Rania ARAR
Challenging the sustainability of the current humanitarian refugee system in enhancing human capabilities and well-being
Approach
Understand the role of capabilities and to use them to empower the refugees with the desire skills to face the need of the labor market

Goals
developing a human development strategy, based on the study of Amartya Sen's capability approach, to contribute to improving the well-being of refugees and bringing about sustainable changes in their communities.
Solution evaluated
exploring and expanding the capabilities of refugees and turn them into long-term functionings
Identify the main challenges that people face as deprived capabilities, and prioritize them based on their impact on the wellbeing of refugees
Identify the gap between the importance of each capability and its realization (functioning).
Collaborate with local NGOs: Define the local NGOs campaigns that support, help create, and collaborate with human agencies.
designing the enabling environment that promotes the wellbeing of refugees and effectively influences the application of the capability approach
Determine the fundamentals: Establish an enabling environment for the activist through trainings and capacity buildings techniques that teach and provide them with the necessary skills to manage their self-help groups, without creating more dependency on NGOs.
Design the enabling environment: Emergency camps must be designed to protect, respect and help refugees recover from their tragedies. Therefore, the functions of refugee camps have to be linked with the missions of collective agencies.
Comments
Rania Arar through her journey or more precisely her dad’s journey proposed to us a reflection on how we could think about the refugee situation but way more importantly how they could think about their situation and how they could regain their capability from an Amartya Sen’s perspective. Indeed, refugee crises are too often see as a humanitarian issue and not enough as a development issue, this project will aim to design an environment that could promote their well-being and allow them to effectively influence the application of their capability.
Remarks
Use own experience to find solutions and enhance people capabilities
Research problem
study refugees => during the Jordan crisis, things got worst
Objectives:
refugees isssue is a development issue
Expandies capabilites
Approach
Resources:
Capbilities: value doing something
achieved functionnings
Utilty/well being
Collective agencies
fragile to their own capabilities
Strategy
Study the main problem people have
Identify gap: how to realize and fill the gap
Define the value: Study the value of a capability. People who share the same value can create an agency
Collaborate with local NGO: can create and support local agency
Training
Design enabling environmental
changing stereotype: changing perception and people behaviour
Conclusion
Should have the basic humain right

Questions during session



Notes
Focus on refugees’ value rather than refugees’ needs => the change of paradigm implies a new vision. => How can we shift the focus to refugees’ value? Refugees’ well-being is part of a solution towards a better system. Social sustainability can be achieved by NGOs and local agencies working together.



19
Federico DIODATO
Territorial care: a lever for sustainable development
Approach

Goals
Les entreprises productives peuvent-elles etre des acteurs territoriaux capables de contribuer a un developpement territorial inscrit dans la duree?
Solution evaluated

Comments
Les systemes de production locaux axent leur specificite sur la “valeur ajoutee territoriale ", c'est-a- dire la production de richesses durables et perennes a partir des ressources du territoire.
Ce sont les raisons de Iidentite des lieux qui orientent la connaissance et la sagesse productive des communautes installees, non seulement vers leur specialisation dans le monde, mais aussi vers des modes de relation avec I environnement qui permettent leur auto-reproduction et leur enrichissement continu dans le temps
Favoriser les circuits courts
Remarks
Questions during session



Notes

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