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Solar energy collection and conversion

A number of devices have been developed to collect solar energy and convert it into usable energy, and since the intensity of the sun's radiation on the earth's surface is very low, collectors designed to capture solar energy must be large in area, for example in the sunny parts of the temperate regions of the world it must reach The area of the panels is approximately 40 square meters to collect enough energy to meet the energy needs of a single home.
Solar radiation can be converted directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells or solar cells, in such cells when light strikes the junction between a metal and a semiconductor (such as silicon) or the junction between two different types of semiconductors a small electrical potential is generated, usually the energy generated by A single photovoltaic cell is only about 2 watts, but by connecting large numbers of individual cells together as in solar panel arrays hundreds or even thousands of kilowatts of electrical power can be generated in a solar power plant. The energy efficiency of most photovoltaic cells at the present time is only about 15% to 20%, and since the intensity of solar radiation is low in the beginning, huge and expensive assemblies of these cells are required to produce moderate amounts of energy. As a result, photovoltaic cells operate on sunlight or artificial light. It is currently widely used in providing energy for homes, water pumps, heating, charging electric cars, and all uses of electricity in all industries.

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