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Digital Readiness Glossary

Digital Readiness Glossary Terms
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See also
1
3-2-1 Rule
See also: Storage Diversification
Maintain at least two, ideally three, copies of your digital files. Utilize different storage mechanisms (i.e., don’t rely on one form of technology). Separate your copies geographically (think natural disaster zones).
Thinkific course
Storage diversification
2
24-bit or 7-bit color
See also: Bit Depth
A color image is typically represented by a bit depth ranging from 8 to 24 or higher. With a 24-bit image, the bits are often divided into three groupings: 8 for red, 8 for green, and 8 for blue. Combinations of those bits are used to represent other colors. A 24-bit image offers 16.7 million (2 24 ) color values. Increasingly scanners are capturing 10 bits or more per color channel and often outputting 8 bits to compensate for "noise" in the scanner and to present an image that more closely mimics human perception.
Cornell Digital Imaging Tutorial
Bit-depth
3
A situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because of an archaic format: the physical media, the reader (required to read the media), the hardware, or the software that runs on it is no longer available. See also Obsolescence.
A situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because of an archaic format: the physical media, the reader (required to read the media), the hardware, or the software that runs on it is no longer available.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
4
Access
The ability to locate relevant information through the use of catalogs, indexes, finding aids, or other tools. The permission to locate and retrieve information for use within legally established restrictions of privacy, confidentiality and security clearance [KW addition] In digital collections, “access” refers to the ability of the material for patrons who want to find or see it. It can refer to the information organization that allows the patron to find the material, or can refer to the ability of an organization to make the material digitally available either online or in person.
Meissner, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscrips
5
Access Copy
a reproduction of a document (analog or digital) created for use by patrons; a digital object that has been scaled down from a high -quality or obsolete original to a lower quality, smaller version, to facilitate delivery. A copy made from a digital object that is intended for use, such as online display or transmission over email.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy CCDC Glossary
6
Accessibility
Digital accessibility is the ability of a website, mobile application or electronic document to be easily navigated and understood by a wide range of users, including those users who have visual, auditory, motor or cognitive disabilities.
7
Administrative metadata
Information needed to help manage the digital object, such as copyright and preservation information.
8
Analog
Analog information is information in a nondigital format such as printed or manuscript text, photographs or other graphics, or 3-D objects. Digitization is the conversion of analog information into digital information.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
9
ArchivesSpace
ArchivesSpace is an open-source archives information management application for managing and providing web access to archives, manuscripts and digital objects.
10
Arrangement
The process of organizing materials with respect to their provenance and original order, to protect their context and to achieve physical and intellectual control over the materials. Also, the organization and sequence of items within a collection.
Meissner, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscrips
11
Audit
Process of systematic review and validation of storage environment, for example, the analysis of monitoring logs.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
12
Authenticity
Authenticity tells us that the digital material is what it purports to be. In the case of born-digital and digitized materials, it refers to the fact that whatever is being cited is the same as it was when it was first created, unless the accompanying metadata indicates any changes. Confidence in the authenticity of digital materials over time is particularly crucial owing to the ease with which alterations can be made.
CCDC Glossary
13
Backup
An additional copy of a digital asset made to protect against loss due to unintended destruction or corruption of the primary set of digital assets. The essential attribute of a backup copy is that the information it contains can be restored in the event that access to the master copy is lost.
CCDC Glossary
14
Best practices
Procedures and guidelines that are widely accepted because experience and research has demonstrated that they are optimal and efficient means to produce a desired result.
CCDC Glossary
15
Bit
A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can work with. Each bit is either a "1" or a "0".
16
Bit Preservation
Bit-level preservation is the basic level of preservation of a digital resource (literally, preservation of the bits forming a digital resource). Bit-level preservation may include maintaining onsite and offsite backup copies, virus checking, fixity checking, and periodic refreshment to new storage media.
CCDC Glossary
17
Bit-depth
Bit depth is determined by the number of bits used to define each pixel. The greater the bit depth, the greater the number of tones (grayscale or color) that can be represented. Digital images may be produced in black and white (bitonal), grayscale, or color.
Cornell Digital Imaging Tutorial
18
Born-digital
Born-digital content has never had an analog form. Born-digital materials differ from analog documents, movies and photographs that were digitized; that is, scanned or converted to a digital format.
CCDC Glossary
19
Byte
A byte is a unit of digital information and measure of data volume, normally equivalent to eight bits. 2 Kilobyte (KB) = 1,000 bytes Megabyte (MB) = 1,000 kilobytes Gigabyte (GB) = 1,000 megabytes Terabyte (TB) = 1,000 gigabytes
CCDC Glossary
20
Calibration (for scanners)
Aligning a scanner’s color profile with its attached computer’s color profile; a process that uses a color target.
21
Checksum
Typically expressed as a text string or hash value, checksums are outputs generated by an algorithm and compactly express the data in a file or other data block. Checksums can be used to detect errors or changes to files stored on a computer or transferred from one computer to another since any change to the bit order of a file will result in a change to the file’s checksum. Checksums are also known as file hashes or message digests.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
22
Collection Development Policy
Collection Development: The function within an archives or other repository that establishes policies and procedures used to select materials that the repository will acquire, typically identifying the scope of creators, subjects, formats, and other characteristics that influence the selection process.
Written collection development policies are advocated as a way to ensure that collections have coherent and well-defined focus, while cooperative collecting practices are seen as a way to ensure that related materials are not scattered among far-flung repositories and that repositories’ scarce resources are not needlessly squandered on unnecessary competitiveness for collections.
Use RW’s example -- These definitions are from SAA
23
Collection Inventory
A list of things. A finding aid that includes, at a minimum, a list of the series in a collection. A summary inventory, also called a series inventory or a title inventory, includes only terse descriptions of the materials. A summary inventory may be made for materials with very technical form or contents, which would require extensive description to adequately capture the nuance difference. They are also made for collections of homogenous materials, in which details would be redundant. See also Inventory.
SAA
24
Collections Management System (CMS)
A Collections Management System (CMS), sometimes called a Collections Information System, is software used by the collections staff of a collecting institution or by individual private collectors and collecting hobbyists or enthusiasts. Collections Management Systems (CMSs) allow individuals or collecting institutions to organize, control, and manage their collections' objects by “tracking all information related to and about” those objects.
Wikipedia
25
Color target
A color target is a type of measuring table that calculates the exact color recognition capability of a scanner and identifies the singularities of that scanner.
https://www.silverfast.com/show/it8-targets/en.html#:~:text=Target%20measurement%20by%20Fogra,Part%202%20in%20December%202019.
26
Color/bi-tonal/gray scale
A bitonal image is represented by pixels consisting of 1 bit each, which can represent two tones (typically black and white), using the values 0 for black and 1 for white or vice versa. A grayscale image is composed of pixels represented by multiple bits of information, typically ranging from 2 to 8 bits or more. Example: In a 2-bit image, there are four possible combinations: 00, 01, 10, and 11. If "00" represents black, and "11" represents white, then "01" equals dark gray and "10" equals light gray. The bit depth is two, but the number of tones that can be represented is 2 2 or 4. At 8 bits, 256 (2 8 ) different tones can be assigned to each pixel. A color image is typically represented by a bit depth ranging from 8 to 24 or higher. With a 24-bit image, the bits are often divided into three groupings: 8 for red, 8 for green, and 8 for blue. Combinations of those bits are used to represent other colors. A 24-bit image offers 16.7 million (2 24 ) color values. Increasingly scanners are capturing 10 bits or more per color channel and often outputting 8 bits to compensate for "noise" in the scanner and to present an image that more closely mimics human perception.
Cornell Digital Imaging Tutorial
27
Community of Practice
It’s a way to learn by working together. As described by Etienne Wenger, Richard McDermott and William M. Snyder in their 2002 book Cultivating Communities of Practice, a Community of Practice (COP) is “a group of people who share a common concern, set of problems, or passion about a topic and deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis.”
RW
28
Compressed/uncompressed
A compressed file is any file that contains one or more files or directory that is smaller than their original file size. These files make downloading faster easier and allow more data to be stored on a removable media. Common compressed file extensions are .ZIP, .RAR, .ARJ, .TAR.GZ, and .TGZ. Compressed files are used to store multiple large digital files.
29
Content
A digital surrogate of a physical object, a born-digital object, or a physical object that is part of the United States’ cultural or scientific heritage, typically held and maintained by the Data Provider on its own servers or physical premises, or by a data provider of the Data Provider.
A physical or digital object, such as an image, text, object, audio recording, moving image, data set, etc., that is part of the Unites States’ cultural and/or scientific heritage. See also digital content.
Information contained in or on a resource that is able to be copied by traditional copying processes or digitization so that it can be reproduced.
For audiovisual material, the content is the data encoded in a recording. For a book or other publication, it is the text and accompanying illustrations. For a photograph, it is the image itself, not the medium the image is held on (e.g., paper, glass or plastic.) For a digital photograph, it is the image and embedded metadata. For multimedia, it is the digital files and embedded metadata, not the hard drive or disc it is stored on.
The term content does not include the physical carrier used to store the content (e.g., for a sound recording on compact disc, the carrier is the compact disc and the jewel case). The content comprises the digital files containing the sound recording burned onto the CD, and the information printed on the sleeve notes and insert.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy + SAA
30
Content Migration
The process of transferring content between storage types, formats, or computer systems.
CCDC Glossary
31
Content statement
Also known as a harmful content statement. A brief introduction to materials that may be traumatic, triggering, hurtful or harmful to an unaware patron.
32
CONTENTdm
CONTENTdm is a collections management system (CMS) offered and supported by OCLC. It allows users to easily build, preserve, and showcase digital collections on personalized websites, making them more discoverable to people around the world. CONTENTdm also secures and monitors digital originals in a cloud-based preservation archive so they remain safe for the future.
33
Controlled vocabulary
A standardized, pre-determined list of terms, such as the Library of Congress Subject Headings.
Thinkific course
34
Conversion
Usually means some form of analog to digital conversion, such as digitizing VHS tapes or film reels. Conversion includes scanning paper documents to create digital images or rekeying paper text into a computer. Conversion is more than copying files. It involves a change in media internal structure, such as from diskette to tape, from one version of an application to a later version, or from one application to another.
SAA
35
Copyright
A legal right protecting the interests of creators or their assignees by granting them control over the reproduction, publication, adaptation, exhibition, or performance of their works in fixed media.
SAA
36
Creative Commons License
A type of license, built on copyright, that provides a standardized way for creators to give others the right to share and use their work. The Creative Commons license was developed by Creative Commons, a nonprofit organization that provides free legal tools to enable sharing and use of creativity and knowledge.
SAA
37
Crowd-sourced projects
Crowdsourcing in archives and special collections can take the form of transcribing handwritten documents, indexing genealogical records, identifying people and places in photos, correcting optical character recognition (OCR) errors in digitized newspaper collections, tagging or captioning historical images, adding pictorial content to maps, transcribing oral histories, and much more.
38
Cultural heritage (organization, collection)
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that is inherited from past generations. Not all legacies of past generations are "heritage", rather heritage is a product of selection by society. Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity).
Wikipedia
39
Cultural property rights
The concept that a society, especially that of indigenous peoples, has the authority to control the use of its traditional heritage. Cultural property rights are roughly analogous to copyright, but the rights are held by a community rather than an individual and the property protected was received by transmission through generations rather than being consciously created. Cultural property rights have not been generally established or codified by statute in the United States, although the Native American Graves Preservation and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) may be seen as recognizing those rights. Other countries, notably Australia, have begun to codify cultural property rights.
SAA
40
Dark archive
A dark archive does not grant public access and only preserves the information it contains. Access to dark archive data is either limited to a few specific individuals or completely restricted to all.
CCDC Glossary
41
Data dictionary
A data dictionary is a collection of names, definitions, and attributes about data elements that are being used or captured in a database, information system, or part of a research project. It describes the meanings and purposes of data elements within the context of a project, and provides guidance on interpretation, accepted meanings and representation. A data dictionary also provides metadata about data elements. The metadata included in a data dictionary can assist in defining the scope and characteristics of data elements, as well the rules for their usage and application.
42
DCMI (Dublin Core)
The Dublin Core, also known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, is a set of fifteen "core" elements for describing resources. DCMI stands for “Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.” Dublin Core is a widely used metadata standard.
43
De-duplication
Refers to techniques for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
44
Description
The process of analyzing, organizing, and recording details about the formal elements of a record or collection of records, such as creator, title, dates, extent, and contents, to facilitate the work’s identification, management, and understanding. Description can be done at the collection level or the item level.
Meissner, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscrips
45
Descriptive Metadata
Information used to search for and locate an object such as title, author, subjects, keywords, and publisher
46
Digital content (digital materials)
any item created, published or distributed in a digital form, including, but not limited to, text, data, sound recordings, photographs and images, motion pictures and software. Born-digital content has never had an analog form, and differs from analog documents, movies and photographs that were digitized - that is, scanned or converted to a digital format. Used interchangeably with digital materials. See also content.
47
Digital Curation
the act of maintaining and adding value to a body of digital information for future and current use; specifically, the active management and appraisal of data over the entire life cycle. Digital curation builds upon the underlying concepts of digital preservation while emphasizing opportunities for added value and knowledge through annotation and continuing resource management.
CCDC Glossary
48
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
In 1998, Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), which amended U.S. copyright law to address important parts of the relationship between copyright and the internet. The three main updates were: (1) establishing protections for online service providers in certain situations if their users engage in copyright infringement, including by creating the notice-and-takedown system, which allows copyright owners to inform online service providers about infringing material so it can be taken down; (2) encouraging copyright owners to give greater access to their works in digital formats by providing them with legal protections against unauthorized access to their works (for example, hacking passwords or circumventing encryption); and (3) making it unlawful to provide false copyright management information (for example, names of authors and copyright owners, titles of works) or to remove or alter that type of information in certain circumstances.
49
Digital object
An entity which is the target for preservation. Depending on context, it may refer to an information object or data object. Files + metadata = digital object
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
50
Digital preservation
Digital preservation combines policies, strategies and actions to ensure access to reformatted and and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time. Digital preservation is the maintenance and management of digital objects over time so that they can be accessed and utilized by future users. Because of the relatively short lifecycle of digital information, preservation is an ongoing process.
Thinkific course CCDC Glossary
51
Digital Provenance
Information about the origin of a digital object and any changes that may have occurred over the course of its life cycle.
CCDC Glossary
52
Digital Stewardship
Digital stewardship “encompasses all activities related to the care and management of digital objects over time. Proper digital stewardship addresses all phases of the digital object lifecycle: from digital asset conception, creation, appraisal, description, and preservation, to accessibility, reuse, and beyond.”
53
Digital Storage
Digital storage refers to a digital method of keeping data, electronic documents, images, etc. in a digital storage location, usually a hard drive or in cloud-based storage. See also 3-2-1 Rule and Redundancy.
Archival digital storage is not the same as a backup ー archival storage keeps content accessible for future users and computers, while back ups keep your computer files working safely and securily
Thinkific course
54
Digitization
The process of creating digital copies or “surrogates” by scanning or otherwise converting analog materials. Digitization is the conversion of analog information into digital information.
CCDC Glossary
55
Disaster threat (level, area)
Disaster risk zones show the likelihood of various natural disasters affecting a particular geographic area. It is advisable to have digital storage options in various disaster risk zones different from your own; for instance, if your area is prone to earthquakes, choose cloud-based backups in an area not prone to earthquakes (and ideally not prone to natural disasters at all).
56
Discovery platform
57
Disposition
The final action that puts into effect the results of an appraisal decision for a series of records. Transfer to an archival institution, transfer to a records center, and destruction are among possible dispositions.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
58
DPI (dots per inch)
DPI refers to the number of printed dots contained within one inch of an image printed by a printer.
59
DPLA
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a US project aimed at providing public access to digital holdings in order to create a large-scale public digital library.
DPLA
60
Electronic records
The records created digitally in the day-to-day business of an organization, such as word processing documents, emails, databases, or intranet web pages.
CCDC Glossary
61
Emulation
A means of overcoming technological obsolescence of hardware and software by developing techniques for imitating obsolete systems on future generations of computers.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
62
Europeana
Europeana is a web portal created by the European Union containing digitized museum collections of more than 3,000 institutions across Europe. It includes records of over 10 million cultural and scientific artifacts, brought together on a single platform and presented in a variety of ways relevant to modern users.
Wikipedia
63
FADGI
Federal Agencies Digital Guidelines Initiative. Their Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials are best practices for cultural heritage imaging for still images.
64
Fair Use
In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use qualifies as a fair use, then it would not be considered an infringement.
65
File Format
A standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It tells the computer how to display, print, process, and save the information. It is dictated by the program that created the file and the operating system under which it was created and stored. A file format is often indicated by a file name extension containing three or four letters, e.g. .tif, .pdf, .jpg.
CCDC Glossary
66
File naming convention
A file naming convention can help you stay organized by making it easy to identify the file(s) that contain the information that you are looking for just from its title and by grouping files that contain similar information close together. A good file naming convention can also help others better understand and navigate through your work.
Purdue University LibGuide
67
Fixity
“Unchangedness” of data, usually evidenced by identical and persistent checksums generated from the same file over time. Fixity refers to the stability of a digital object over time.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
68
Format migration
A means of overcoming technological obsolescence by transferring digital resources from one hardware/software generation to the next. The purpose of migration is to preserve the intellectual content of digital objects and to retain the ability for clients to retrieve, display, and otherwise use them in the face of constantly changing technology. Migration differs from the refreshing of storage media in that it is not always possible to make an exact digital copy or replicate original features and appearance and still maintain the compatibility of the resource with the new generation of technology.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
69
Full (digital) preservation
Defined here as the use of format migration, emulation, digital forensics, and other strategies to ensure that the content of digital materials, rather than just the original bits and bytes, remain protected and accessible over time despite technology obsolescence and the need for refreshed storage media.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
70
Gap analysis
Where are you now vs where do you want to be? The comparison of actual performance with potential or desired performance. In libraries, archives and museums, this can refer to gaps in many areas: collections, procedures, documentation, etc.
71
Hard disk drives
A form of magnetic media that have magnetic platters that are read by arms that spin.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
72
Hard drive (external, portable)
A hard drive which is plugged into a computer port rather than installed inside a computer, used for storage and backups.
73
Harmful content statement
See content statement
74
HathiTrust
Founded in 2008, HathiTrust is a not-for-profit collaborative of academic and research libraries preserving 17+ million digitized items.
HathiTrust
75
IMLS
Institute of Museum and Library Services. IMLS is an independent federal agency that provides library grants, museum grants, policy development, and research.
IMLS.
76
Inclusion gaps
In archives, this refers to voices or materials that may not be in your collections but perhaps should be. For instance, Native Americans occupied your geographic location long before your current organization began collecting records; are Native American voices respectfully represented anywhere? Likewise, do women, people of color, people with disabilities, etc. have voices in your materials?
77
Intellectual property rights
Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time. Intellectual property rights are governed by copyright restrictions.
78
Internet Archive (Wayback Machine)
Internet Archive is a non-profit library of millions of free books, movies, software, music, websites, and more. The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web, founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit library based in San Francisco. It allows the user to go “back in time” and see what websites looked like in the past.
79
Inventory
See Collection Inventory. A finding aid that includes, at a minimum, a list of series in a collection. In digital collections, an inventory can be a simple spreadsheet that includes, at a minimum, name and location information for all collections.
Meissner, Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscrips
80
Legacy Media
Carriers of digital information that are either obsolete or becoming obsolete soon. Files on legacy media are to be given higher prioritization in digital preservation to prevent their permanent loss.
81
Legacy Planning
A leadership or management strategy that prepares the next generation or wave of leaders to step in to leadership roles in an organization.
82
Machine-readable
In a medium or format that requires a mechanical device to make it intelligible to humans. Machine-readable is commonly used to refer to digital computer data files, which may be stored on magnetic media or punch cards. However, phonograph records, audio cassettes, and LaserDiscs are examples of analog machine-readable formats.
SAA
83
Master Copy
See also Preservation Master. Digital content targeted for preservation that is considered the master version of the intellectual content of a digital resource. Master copies/preservation masters generally do not undergo significant processing or editing, and are often used to make other copies including reproduction and distribution copies.
84
Media Deterioration or Degradation
The breakdown of an analog object that holds digital objects, potentially causing the digital objects on the media to no longer be retrievable.
85
Metadata
Metadata is structured and standardized data that describes a digital resource. It includes all cataloging or indexing information created to locate, describe and manage the preservation of a resource. For example, the metadata recorded for an image of Janesville’s downtown would include data about the content of the image; the photographer; the date of creation and date(s) of image modification; technical information such as resolution, file type and file format; relationships with other related files (e.g., other versions of the file); and the location of the file.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
86
Metadata elements
Items that are part of the metadata such as title, creator, author, etc.
87
Migration
See Content Migration
88
Monitoring
Logging or recording various aspects of the storage configuration, including hardware, activity, and data integrity.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
89
Mukurtu
Mukurtu is a free and open source community archive platform designed with the unique needs of Indigenous communities, libraries, archives, and museums in mind. Mukurtu is built on the Drupal content management system with a features set aimed at indigenous cultural heritage management needs.
Mukurtu
90
NEH
National Endowment for the Humanities, grant-funding organization. It is one of the largest funders of humanities programs in the United States.
NEH
91
NHPRC
The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), a statutory body affiliated with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), supports a wide range of activities to preserve, publish, and encourage the use of documentary sources, created in every medium ranging from quill pen to computer, relating to the history of the United States. Many cultural heritage grants come from the NHPRC.
NHPRC
92
OAI-PMH
A protocol for harvesting (collecting) descriptive metadata records from a repository so that services can be built using metadata from many sources.
The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a low-barrier mechanism for repository interoperability. Data Providers are repositories that expose structured metadata via OAI-PMH. Service Providers then make OAI-PMH service requests to harvest that metadata. OAI-PMH is a set of six verbs or services that are invoked within HTTP.
OAI-PMH
93
OAIS
OAIS is an acronym that stands for Open Archival Information System. The OAIS framework consists of an organization of people and systems who have accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a certain group of people. It does not offer a definitive guideline for how a digital repository should act or what it should do, but instead gives the digital preservation community a common language and outlook or talking about digital preservation.
CCDC Glossary
94
Obsolescence
See also Digital Obsolescence. Format or technology obsolescence occurs when a piece of software or hardware is no longer in wide use or available at all. This causes it to be difficult or impossible to use any files that depend on this software or hardware.
CCDC Glossary
95
OHMS
Oral history metadata synchronizer. It is a web-based, system called OHMS (Oral History Metadata Synchronizer) to inexpensively and efficiently enhance access to oral history online. OHMS provides users word-level search capability and a time-correlated transcript or indexed interview connecting the textual search term to the corresponding moment in the recorded interview online.
OHMS
96
Omeka
Omeka provides open-source web publishing platforms for sharing digital collections and creating media-rich online exhibits.
Omeka
97
Organizational Mission
A mission statement defines what an organization is, why it exists, its reason for being. At a minimum, your mission statement should define who your primary users are, identify the services you offer, and describe the geographical location in which you operate.
98
PastPerfect
PastPerfect Museum Software is an application for collections archiving. It is designed for museums, but may be used by various institutions including libraries, archives, and natural history collections. PastPerfect allows for the database storage of artifacts, documents, photographs, and library books
Wikipedia
99
People-first description
Originally a respectful way to describe a person with disabilities, the method also applies to many aspects of archival description. "People First Language” (PFL) puts the person before the disability, and describes what a person has, not who a person is. PFL uses phrases such as “person with a disability,” “individuals with disabilities,” and “children with disabilities,” as opposed to phrases that identify people based solely on their disability, such as “the disabled.” Likewise in archives, this method should be used to describe subjects.
100
Personally Identifiable Information (PII)
Information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
101
Physical content
Analog archival materials such as paper, artifacts, photographs, etc.
102
Point of failure
A single point of failure is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working. In digital collections, a goal should be redundant forms of storage so that no single failure can significantly affect the collections.
103
PPI
Image resolution is typically described in PPI, which refers to how many pixels are displayed per inch of an image. Higher resolutions mean that there more pixels per inch (PPI), resulting in more pixel information and creating a high-quality, crisp image. Images with lower resolutions have fewer pixels, and if those few pixels are too large (usually when an image is stretched), they can become visible.
UMich LibGuide
104
PREMIS
An acronym that stands for Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies. PREMIS metadata structures and describes what sort of preservation actions have been done to a digital object.
105
Preservation Copy
Also known as a preservation master. Digital content targeted for preservation that is considered the master version of the intellectual content of a digital resource. Preservation masters generally do not undergo significant processing or editing. Preservation masters are often used to make other copies including reproduction and distribution copies.
CCDC Glossary
106
Preservica
Preservica is a digital preservation and access solution available in both a cloud hosted and on-premise edition. The solution includes a comprehensive suite of OAIS (open archival information system) compatible workflows for ingest, management, storage, access and long-term preservation of digital content.
CoSA
107
Preview
A reduced size or length audio and/or visual representation of content, in the form of one or more thumbnail and low resolution images, text files, audio files, and/or moving image files, maintained on the data provider’s server and connected to the metadata by hyperlink.
108
Preview
A reduced size or length audio and/or visual representation of content, in the form of one or more images, text files, audio files, and/or moving image files.
DPLA
109
Public domain
The term “public domain” refers to creative materials that are not protected by intellectual property laws such as copyright, trademark, or patent laws. The public owns these works, not an individual author or artist. Anyone can use a public domain work without obtaining permission, but no one can ever own it.
110
Quality assurance/quality control
Also called QA or QC, these are activities designed to check the quality of digital collections during or after processing. For instance, spot checking a number of scanned photograph images to ensure clarity, color profile, etc.
111
Redundancy
Creation and retention of multiple near-identical copies of the same data, stored in different digital locations.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
112
Replication
Automated copying of data from one primary storage location to another or several other storage locations. Replication is distinct from redundancy in that it dynamically updates the secondary storage locations.
O.W.L.S. Digitization Workflow
113
Rights management
Allows for establishment of an object's access, use, and alteration rights
POWRR
114
Rights statements
These statements are a simple, standardized system of labels that more clearly communicate the copyright and re-use status of digital objects to the public, which improves usability and access for users.
DPLA
115
Scanner
An image scanner is a digital device used to scan images, pictures, printed text and objects and then convert them to digital images.
116
Storage
see Digital Storage
117
Storage diversification
Geographically Dispersed Data Storage Model: Keeps more than one copy of the object in more than one geographical region.
118
Sustainability
Activities to ensure your project can continue beyond your grant period, for example: 1) Creating and documenting policies, procedures and workflows, 2) Creating training materials for future project staff, 3) Developing a digital preservation plan, 4) Building organizational or community support for the project, 5) Pursuing additional grants or more permanent funding to support the project work.
IMLS APP
119
Sustainable Heritage Network
The Sustainable Heritage Network (SHN) is an answer to the pressing need for comprehensive workshops, online tutorials, and web resources dedicated to the lifecycle of digital stewardship. The SHN is a collaborative project that complements the work of Indigenous peoples globally to preserve, share, and manage cultural heritage and knowledge. The SHN organizes and offers face-to-face workshops, produces educational resources, and links people and resources through our digital workbenches. The SHN is part of a network of individuals, communities, and institutions who work together to provide each other with digital tools and preservation assistance. We call this: Collaborative Stewardship.
SHN
120
Technical metadata
Information about aspects of the object related to its file format or the software used to create the file. This may include things like the scanning equipment used to create a digital object and the settings used to create or modify it.
121
Traditional Knowledge (TK) Labels
TK Labels are a tool for Indigenous communities to add existing local protocols for access and use to recorded cultural heritage that is digitally circulating outside community contexts. The TK Labels offer an educative and informational strategy to help non-community users of this cultural heritage understand its importance and significance to the communities from where it derives and continues to have meaning. TK Labeling is designed to identify and clarify which material has community-specific restrictions regarding access and use. This is especially with respect to sacred and/or ceremonial material, material that has gender restrictions, seasonal conditions of use and/or materials specifically designed for outreach purposes. The TK Labels also can be used to add information that might be considered ‘missing’, including the name of the community who remains the creator or cultural custodian of the material, and how to contact the relevant family, clan or community to arrange appropriate permissions.
122
Transcription
Making a written copy of a recording or document. For audio or video recordings, a transcription is a written copy of the spoken material. For handwritten archival artifacts, a transcription is a typed, usually digital, version of the handwriting.
123
User
An individual who uses the collections and services of a repository; a patron; a reader; a researcher; a searcher. Patron, reader, researcher, and searcher typically connote a user who is not a member of the repository staff. Different words may be used to describe a user, especially one using nontextual formats; for example, listener or viewer.
SAA
124
Versioning
Refers to saving and tracking in systematic ways new copies of your files when you make changes so that you can go back and retrieve specific versions of your files later and distinguish authoritative copies.
UWRF Digital Preservation Policy
125
Virus Scan
Checks for malicious programs and macros
POWRR
126
Web archiving (”crawl”)
Web archiving is the process of gathering up data that has been recorded on the World Wide Web, storing it, ensuring the data is preserved in an archive, and making the collected data available for future research. The Internet Archive and several national libraries initiated web archiving practices in 1996.
127
Workflow
Consists of the tasks, procedural steps, organizations or people, information and tools needed for each step in a process.
CCDC Glossary
128
XML
Stands for Extensible Markup Language. One of the most common ways used to represent metadata.
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