Carbon is essential to life Organic compound == carbon Inorganic compound != include carbon Carbon leads to diversity Determining factors of organic molecules’ properties Carbon Backbone - gives structure shape, function Functional Groups - part of molecule that participates in reactions Backbone is unchanged, functional groups that react Has four valence (outer shell) electrons (covalent) Can bond with 4 other atoms Create wide array of molecules Atom unstable unless valence shell is full, reacts with other atoms Branch of chem that studies carbon compounds Central part of an organic molecule, determines structure (and function/properties) of molecule Rings, linear, branching, and double bonds Shape determines function -- variety of different molecules Long chains containing carbon and hydrogen Contains lots of energy (lots of bonds, for ex. fat) Nonpolar (Hydrophobic) - only polar if distribution of charge with an electronegative charge (No O, Su, N -- electronegative atoms) Structure leads to function Compounds with same formula but different arrangement of atoms Carbon backbone is different Groups branching off backbone are different (functional groups) Carbons are double bonded Functional groups on opposite sides = trans Functional groups on same side = cis Enantiomers/Stereoisomers Mirror images of structure Example: L-Dopa and D-Dopa - only difference is structure L-Dopa treats Parkinson’s, D-Dopa inactive Functional Groups - branch off Carbon Backbone Participates in chemical reactions*** Ketones (acetone) (carbon double bonded with oxygen) Carboxylic acids, ie. acetic acid Carbon double bonded to oxygen oxygen single bonded to another oxygen Can be ionized or nonionized Donate H+ ions to solution, acidic NH2 - can Ionize and become NH3+, accepts H+ ions (base) Organic phosphates i.e. glyceral phosphate (PO4) Phosphorus bonded to four oxygens two oxygens have negative charges Important phosphate groups Large molecule consisting of many identical/similar building blocks (monomers) Volcanoes on earth released gasses like Carbon oxides, water vapor, methane, etc. Water formed primordial seas, location of first macromolecules and first living organisms - 3.6 billion years ago Stanley Miller made experiment simulate conditions on early earth, to create macromolecules abiotically Included gasses, rain, and electricity Gases reacted with one another Water condensed and formed “sea” found monomers, the first macromolecules Abiotic synthesis of monomers → chemical reactions Earth covered in volcanoes, volatile, releasing gasses in atmosphere → formed primordial seas where sea meets land is where life started. Start of life - took 1 billion years Have right elements - CHNOPS Elements come together to form the first monomers (amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, monosaccharides, etc. building blocks) Form polymers (proteins, triglycerides, nucleic acids, etc.) Form cells → bacterial life DNA (bases) and Proteins (amino acids) compare amounts that organisms share in common, more in common the more similar the organisms are Molecular homology - things shared in common due to common ancestry Monomers are repeating sub units in polymers Fused by dehydration synthesis (remove water) and defused using hydrolysis (add water)
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