Sofia Quiroz
Native American/European Colonization
- Bering Strait= land bridge, native Americans crossed this former land bridge from Asia to America, it was 20,000-30,000 years ago
- European Colonization= after Columbus discovered America for the Europeans a stream of explorers came to the new world: French to Canada & the Mississippi River, English to east coast, & Spanish to Caribbean & South & Central America
-Motivations of European colonization= gold, glory, & God
13 Colonies/ Revolution Era
- 13 Colonies regions and economies=
New England colonies, middle colonies, & southern colonies > 3 different regions of the 13 colonies
Southern colonies > agriculture: Virginia, Maryland, North & South Carolina, Georgia
New England colonies > trading: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
Middle colonies > crops, farming: Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey & Delaware
- War for Independence= 1775-1783; tension between colonists and the 13 colonies; stamp act, the British wanted to increase taxes; George Washington, Samuel Adams, Patrick Adams, & John Lay, were against the British crown; July 4, continental congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence
- Articles of Confederation= first written constitution of U.S. ; written in 1777 and ratified in 1781; engage foreign relations, declare war, borrow money; "The United States of America"; Benjamin Franklin & Thomas Jefferson
- Northwest Ordinance=
1787; established gov. for Northwest Territory, outlined process for admitting new state to union & guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to original 13 states
protected civil liberties and outlawed slavery in new territories
- US Constitution=
written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 by James Madison
perfect union, bring justice, insure domestic tranquility, secure blessings of liberty
Westward Expansion
- Louisiana Purchase=
Thomas Jefferson purchased territory of Louisiana from the French government for $15 million in 1803
double the size of the us
for Jefferson it was the key for the nation's health
empire of liberty
- Andrew Jackson=
favored the native American removal
Indian removal act (remove southern Americans from southern territories)
southern people favored this policy since they desired the N.A. land for farming
Indian Removal Act > 1830; Andrew Jackson signed the Indian removal act and gave the federal government the power to exchange native; held land in cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi River for land of the west
- Reaction to slave riots= slave states imposed even harder treatment and punishments after slave riots
- Western Land and Mexican Government=
treaty of Guadalupe; 1848
Mexico ceded 55% of its territory
Arizona, New Mexico, California, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Texas
- Compromise of 1850=
California entered as free state
the trading of slaves was abolished in Washington dc
an amendment was made to the fugitive slave act
popular sovereignty in Utah and new Mexico concerning the question of slavery
federal assumption of Texas debt
new fugitive slave law, advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
- Kansas-Nebraska Act= 1854; created Kansas and Nebraska as states and gave the people the right to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty
Bleeding Kansas > sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory; the dispute further strained relations of the North & South, making civil war imminent
Popular Sovereignty > belief that ultimate power resides in the people
Civil War
- 1860 Election= event that starts the civil war
Abraham Lincoln
slavery was central issue
- Abraham Lincoln=
16th president
emancipation proclamation that declared forever free men slaves within the confederacy in 1863
- Secession=
withdrawal of 11 slave states (states in which slaveholding was legal) from union during 1860-61 following the election of Abraham Lincoln as president
precipitated the civil war
- Civil War Drafts=
registration of all males between ages 20 & 45
U.S. congress passes conscription act that produces first wartime draft of us citizens
- Battle of Gettysburg – results= 1863, this three day battle was the bloodiest of the entire civil war, ended in union victory, and is considered the turning point of the war
- Andrew Johnson=
17th president of the us
southerner from Tennessee
opposed radical republicans
declared slavery was essential to preservation of the union
- Reconstruction plans=
followed by American civil war & during which attempts were made to redress inequities of slavery & its political, social, economic legacy, & to slave problems arising from readmission to union of the 11 states that has seceded at or before the outbreak of war
southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Radical Republican > after Civil War, group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South
15th amendment > 1870 >the right of U.S. citizens shall not be denied by any state, no matter race, color, etc.
End of Reconstruction > 1877 > compromise & informal agreement between southern democrats & allies of republican Rutherford Hayes to settle result of 1876 presidential election & marked end of reconstruction era
Industrialization manufacturing in factory using machines plus labor force
- Trusts= firms or corporations that combine for purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly) , there are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies
- Monopolies= corporations that gain complete control of production of single good or service
- Sherman Antitrust Act=
1890; law that banned businesses from merging to form monopoly
prevented industries from manipulating prices
to regulate interstate commerce
- Knights of Labor=
founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869
organized skilled & unskilled workers
1881, declared that women would be accepted and have equal rights as men did in the organization
saw immigration as a threat
advocated laws such as: laws restricting child labor & eight hour work daily
- Farmer’s Alliance Political Party=
improve farmer's economic conditions by creation of cooperative & political advocacy; 1870-1880
only permitted whites to join
Charles W. Macune
populist movement (against business monopolies)
- Immigration=
people came to U.S. to find work
immigrants were generally more willing to accept lower wages & inferior working conditions
Push-Pull Factors > conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands & migrate to another region (push factors)
Religious Persecution > mistreatment of an individual or group because of their religious beliefs
- Urbanization=
economic growth
technological advancements
created more jobs
Cosmopolitan Lifestyle > way of life taken from lifestyles of range of cultures across the world
Cultural Changes > major shift in the norms, values, attitudes, & mindset of entire organization
- Migration to North= reconstruction forced southerners move north
Crop Issues > boil weevils infestation > estimated to have caused crop losses of 30-50% in infested areas > eradication program led to increased crop yields (by 10% or more) & dramatic decrease in use of insecticides (40-100%), leading to reduction in production costs
Education > poor children couldn't attend school & needed to work > later everyone could have an education which leaded to creation of better lives
- Railroads= made commerce possible
Western Farmers > -highest interest rates; high freight rates; high storage costs > borrowed money to plant their crops so could not repay what they owed
Farm Machines > meant fewer farmers were needed to produce food
Progressive Era
- Women rights=
female reformers
women became leaders in range of political & social movements from 1890-1920
Susan B. Anthony > abolitionist, rights of labor, equal pay for equal work > social reformer >19th amendment gave women the right to vote which lead to women suffrage movement
Women Suffrage > women's right to vote
- Social Gospel Movement= preached salvation through service to the poor
- Upton Sinclair= muckraker who shocked the nation when he published “The Jungle”, novel that revealed gruesome details about meat packing industry in Chicago > book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen
- Americanization= belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
- Urban League= network of churches & clubs that set up employment agencies & relief efforts to help African Americans get settled & find work in the cities
- Clayton Antitrust Act=
strengthened Sherman Antitrust Act
- John Muir=
naturalist that believed that wilderness should be preserved in natural state
responsible for creation of Yosemite National Park in California
House of Burgesses=
first English representative in North America
July 1619
purpose of passing laws & maintaining order in Jamestown & other settlements
British practice of taking American sailors & forcing them into military service
cause of 1812 war
James Madison=
4th president
contributed to the ratification of the constitution
Separation of powers= division of powers > legislative, executive, & judicial branch
Monroe Doctrine=
stated that any intervention by external powers in politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the U.S.
Conquistador= any leader of the Spanish conquest of America
Great Awakening=
religious revival that impacted the British colonies
Federalism= system of government in which the same territory is controlled by 2 levels of government
Embargo= government that restricts commerce
Thomas Jefferson=
spokesman for democracy
American founding father
principal author of Declaration of Independence
Sharecroppers= system where land Lord allows tenant to use land for a change for a share of crop ensure the tenants will remain tied & also don’t leave for other opportunities
Robert E. Lee= confederate general who led south attempt at secession during Civil War
Andrew Johnson=
17th president
founder of democratic party
Total war= war unrestricted in terms of weapons used
Harriet Beecher Stowe=
author of Uncle Tom's Cabin; highlighted evils of slavery
Gettysburg Address= 1863 Lincoln's speech to honor fallen soldiers
Compromise of 1850=
admitted California to the U.S. as a "free" (no slavery) state but allowed some newly acquired territories to decide on slavery for themselves
Stephen A. Douglas helped pass compromise of 1850 as well as giving states choice with popular sovereignty
John C. Calhoun was a senator from South Carolina that opposed compromise
Millard Fillmore helped pass by gaining support of Northern Whigs for compromise
Freedmen’s Bureau= established by Congress to provide practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed African-Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom
Second Great Awakening= Protestant religious revival in the US 1795 to 1835
Civil Disobedience= refusal to obey demands or commands of government or occupying power
Monopoly= market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
low income housing units characterized by high occupying and below-average conditions
built for immigrants
American Federation of Labor= sought tangible economic gains, such as: higher wages, shorter hours and better conditions
Gold standard= monetary system in which the standard unit of currency is a fixed quantity of gold
Gospel of Wealth=
1889 article
Andrew Carnegie encouraged right to be philanthropists
Dawes Act=
law that provides the distribution of Indian reservation land among N.A
allowed federal government to break up tribal lands
Angel Island= immigration station where immigrants entering the United States were detained & interrogated
Populist party= U.S political party that sought to represent interests of farmers & laborers in 1890's
John D. Rockefeller=
founder of standard oil company
was first U.S. business trust
Andrew Carnegie=
steel industry
political movement that addressed ideas, impulses, & issues steaming from moderation of America society
elimination corruption in the government
Settlement house= organizations that provided support services to the urban poor & European immigrants
Temperance movement= movement dedicated to promoting moderation & more often complete absence of liquor
Alice Paul=
advocated for & helped secure passage of 19th amendment to U.S. constitution
women’s rights activist & suffragist
Booker T. Washington=
African American progressive
-organized the national negro business league to foster black entrepreneurship
NAACP= Interracial International American organization created to work for the abolition of segregation & discrimination
Square Deal=
stated policy of Theodore Roosevelt
promising fairness in all dealings with labor & management
conservation of natural resources, control of corporations
consumer protection
Pure Food and Drug Act=
prohibited sale of disbranched or adulterer food & drugs in interstate commerce
lead to foundation for nation's first consumer protection agency
Woodrow Wilson=
28th president
sweeping reforms for the middle class
voting rights for women
precepts for world peace
Sixteenth Amendment=
allowed congress to levy tax or income from any source without apportioning it among state
states permitting federal income tax
Short Answer Response questions (3 will be chosen & I will write 2).
Is the Colombian Exchange considered positive or negative in American history? In terms of benefits, the Columbian Exchange only positively affected the lives of the Europeans. Though there were many positive effects, like the previously mentioned, the Columbian Exchange had a long-lasting negative impact. For example, the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas made the exchange of plants, animals & diseases between the Old and New Worlds much easier & faster. Even though they gained many things such as, crops, like maize and potatoes & land in the Americas, they also gained slaves from Africa which had an effect as something negative since it was based on discrimination & feeling of superiority.
Which, of the 13 original English colonies, would you want to live in and why? Of the 13th original English colonies, I would like to live on New York, formerly New Amsterdam. I think it is a beautiful city and it is known as the Empire State which it is a name that really captivates my attention. It has amazing landscapes which include lowlands, mountains, coastal plain, and farmland. One of the biggest benefits of living here would be that it has a central location an affordable real estate and it is very spaciable. New York has natural resources such as agricultural land, coal, furs, forestry (timber), and iron ore. Finally, It has cold winters and hot summers, so it is perfect for farming, plus I enjoy this balance in the seasons.
Which of the causes of the War for Independence do you feel is most significant? I feel that the protests in Boston was one of the most significant causes of the War for Independence. This protests refer to the ones made by many colonists protesting against these new British taxes and laws. This situation led to the formation of a group called the Sons of Liberty. During one of the protests, a fight broke out and several colonists were shot and killed and it is now known for being the Boston Massacre. Another recognized event was the Boston Tea Party. It was the time when the British imposed a new tax on tea & several patriots in protested this act by boarding ships in Boston harbor and dumping their tea into the water.
How does slavery and the treatment of native Americans reflect the inequities we see in today’s society when having to do with race? Slavery and the treatment of native Americans reflect the inequities we see in today’s society when having to do with race on the issue of discrimination and poor treatment. For example, native Americans were treated as slaves meaning they did not have rights and their working conditions were unfair, which could cause them death. Also, they were not considered when taking public decisions since they were the minority and others acted as if they did not exist. Nowadays, we have seen a lot of cases of discrimination in different ways and sizes. One of the most famous cases is the George Floyd’s horrible situation. This man was accused by a worker of stealing. The worker called the police and they they arrested him without any proof. When trying to defend himself of this unfair situation, he was violented by 4 and asphyxiated by 1 white police man, which caused his sudden death.
Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, of these three Antebellum deals which is the most controversial? The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a Antebellum deal which I consider was the most controversial. This act began a chain of events in the Kansas Territory that foreshadowed the Civil War. It is said to be controversial since it mandated popular sovereignty allowing settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within a new states border. It repealed the Missouri Compromise & created two new territories. This caused a lot of conflicts one of them being the Bleeding Kansas. This was the period of violence during the settling of Kansas territory. It was also the time when proslavery and antislavery activists flooded into the territories to sway the vote.
Was the Civil War fought because of the issue of slavery or the right of states to disobey federal law? The Civil War was fought because of the issue of slavery. This is because the economics of slavery & the political control of that system were the center of this conflict. One of the main issues was state’s rights. These were related to the Southern states wanting to assert their authority over the federal government so they could abolish federal laws they didn't support, especially laws interfering with the South's right to keep slaves and take them wherever they wished. Another factor was territorial expansion. This has to do with the South’s wish of taking slavery into the western territories, while the North was committed to keeping them open to white labor alone.
Which Reconstruction plan do you agree the most with - Presidential or Congressional? Be sure to explain why? I agree the most with the Congressional Reconstruction plan. This is because they were focused on justice and equality. This plan stated that the South should be punished for their role in the Civil War and slavery. By doing this, it creates consciousness on the people that were part of this, helping to reduce discrimination. Another thing that this Reconstruction plan established was that they should have protections for freed African Americans. I consider that this a great way of achieving the treatment that everyone would receive and it would also make them now feel like if their opinions count. This was planned in a really precise way since it was proposed dividing the South into several districts under military control in order to force these states to accept and abide by government policy. Through applying this conditions, it would help keep an order and reassure that everything is being obeyed just like it is said.
What is the Gilded Age? The Gilded Age was a period of time in history where it was not like it appeared to be. It is known that it was a period of transformation in the economy, technology, government, and social customs of America. But what is not highlighted about this era, are the negative outcomes which are not less important at all. The first issue of the Gilded Age was poverty which was primarily related to the immigrant neighborhoods living under poor conditions. The second issue was unemployment which had to do with the banks & other businesses that sank, & the stock market being plunged. The third and finale issue was corruption which relates to the corporate wealth and a fee-based governance structure that fueled widespread corruption.
During the Gilded Age, if you were president, which issues would you set as your first priority – social, political, or economic? If I was a president during the Gilded Age, I would set social problems as my priority. This is because I believe that the key to a change is humanity. By solving or making a progress in the end of this problem, the other two would be so much easier to treat & even could be solved by themselves. Though all of them perfectly relate, I would try to focus on the problems in society since it is much harder and it takes much more time. The social issues would help fix the political ones by having a good influence on ending the corruptive mentality that causes the abuse of power. The economic issues woold be influenced by the social ones it would help decrease unemployment and poverty through the correct and fair treatment to the minorities.
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