The Architecture of Android Applications

The architecture of Android apps in the context of IT Systems architecture development from 1970 to 2023.
The architecture of Android apps has evolved significantly over the years, in line with the broader evolution of IT systems architecture development.
In the early 1970s, IT systems architecture development was primarily focused on mainframe systems. These systems were monolithic and relied on centralized control. The architecture was characterized by tight coupling between components, and changes to one component could have significant impacts on the entire system.
With the advent of distributed computing in the 1980s, IT systems architecture development shifted towards a more modular approach. Systems were designed as a collection of loosely coupled components that could be developed and deployed independently. This approach allowed for greater flexibility and scalability, and it became the dominant paradigm in IT systems architecture development.
The emergence of the Internet in the 1990s led to a new era of IT systems architecture development, focused on web-based applications. Web applications were designed using a three-tier architecture, with a presentation layer, an application layer, and a database layer. This architecture allowed for greater separation of concerns and enabled developers to build more complex applications.
In the early 2000s, mobile devices began to emerge as a new platform for software development. Initially, mobile apps were developed using a monolithic architecture, similar to the mainframe systems of the 1970s. However, as mobile devices became more powerful, and the demand for more complex apps grew, developers began to adopt a more modular approach.
Today, the architecture of Android apps is characterized by a variety of patterns, including the Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern, the Model-View-Presenter (MVP) pattern, and the Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) pattern. These patterns are all designed to promote modularity and separation of concerns, making it easier to build and maintain complex applications.
Looking ahead to 2023, we can expect to see continued evolution in the architecture of Android apps. As new technologies emerge, such as big data, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things, developers will need to adapt their architectures to accommodate these new paradigms. However, the core principles of modularity and separation of concerns are likely to remain central to Android app architecture for the foreseeable future.

The Android operating system is designed to run on a wide range of hardware, from low-end smartphones to high-end tablets. To achieve this, the Android architecture is built around a set of core components that can be customized and optimized to suit different hardware configurations.


Views are the basic building blocks of an Android application's user interface. A view is an object that draws something on the screen and responds to user input. Examples of views include buttons, text fields, and image views. Views are typically organized into layouts, which define the structure and positioning of the views on the screen.


A button is a type of view that responds to user clicks or touches. When a user clicks a button, it triggers an event that can be handled by the application. Buttons are typically used to initiate actions, such as submitting a form or navigating to a new screen.


An ImageView is a type of view that displays an image on the screen. The image can be loaded from a file, a URL, or from within the application itself. ImageView is a versatile component that can be used to display images in a variety of contexts, such as in a photo gallery, or as part of a user interface.


An activity is a single screen with a user interface. An application can have multiple activities, and each activity can have its user interface. Activities are the basic building blocks of an Android application, and they are responsible for handling user input, coordinating with other activities, and managing the application's state.

Activity Lifecycles

The lifecycle of an activity refers to the series of events that occur as the activity is created, started, resumed, paused, stopped, and destroyed. The Android system manages the activity lifecycle, and developers can hook into various lifecycle events to perform operations such as saving state or releasing resources.

Android Application Elements

Other important Android application elements include:
services: Services are used to perform background operations, such as downloading data or playing music.
broadcast receivers: Broadcast receivers are used to listen for system events or custom events, such as a low battery warning or a user-defined alarm.
content providers: Content providers are used to manage data stored by the application, such as contacts or media files.

All of these components operate within the Android LINUX operating system, which provides a layer of abstraction between the hardware and software components of the phone.
The LINUX kernel provides low-level access to the phone's hardware, while the Android framework provides a set of APIs and tools for building applications on top of LINUX.
The combination of LINUX and Android provides a powerful and flexible platform for building mobile applications.
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