### Let's proceed with a specific example to better illustrate the given material.

PART 1: Proving Algorithm Correctness

QUICK OVERVIEW:

Introduction to Algorithm Correctness:

An algorithm is said to be correct if, for every input instance, it halts with the correct output.

Ensuring an algorithm's correctness is essential as it validates that the algorithm is accurately solving the intended problem.

Mathematical Induction:

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique used to establish that a given statement is true for all natural numbers.

It consists of two steps:

The base step (proof of the statement for the first natural number)

and the inductive step (proof that, if the statement holds for some natural number, it holds for the next natural number as well).

Proving Algorithm Correctness with Induction:

Mathematical induction can be applied to verifying algorithm correctness.

Each step of the algorithm corresponds to an inductive step in the mathematical induction proof, confirming the algorithm is valid for all input instances.

### APPLIED EXAMPLE: SUM OF NATURAL NUMBERS

Let’s take an example of an algorithm that calculates the sum of the first N natural numbers. The formula is:

Sum(N) = N * (N + 1) / 2

INTRO:

This simple algorithm is said to calculate the sum of the first N natural numbers.

We'll now attempt to prove its correctness.

ASSUMPTION - BASE CASE (for N=1):

First, we prove this formula works for N=1.

Sum(1) = 1 * (1 + 1) / 2 = 1, which is true, as the sum of the first 1 natural number(s) is indeed 1.

INDUCTIVE STEP:

Next, we make an inductive hypothesis.

We assume this formula works for some natural number k (that Sum(k) = k * (k + 1) / 2 is true), and we need to prove that the formula will then work for k + 1.

So we want to prove Sum(k + 1) = (k + 1) * ((k + 1) + 1) / 2. If we simplify this, we need to prove that

Sum(k + 1) = (k + 1) * (k + 2) / 2 = (k^2 + 3k + 2) / 2.

We also know that Sum(k + 1) = Sum(k) + (k + 1) based on the definition of the problem.

Substitute Sum(k) from our inductive hypothesis into this equation:

= (k * (k + 1) / 2) + (k + 1)
= (k^2 + k + 2k + 2) / 2
= (k^2 + 3k + 2) / 2

Hence, we've successfully completed our inductive step and have shown that if our formula is true for some number k, then it's also true for k + 1.

CONCLUSION: What Induction means

Induction is our mathematical tool for proving algorithm correctness

Now, we've established the correctness of the algorithm using mathematical induction. It guarantees that no matter which number N we're finding the sum of, our algorithm will correctly calculate it. This is a typical example of using mathematical induction to verify correctness in algorithms.

The net sum of this is:

I have some code:

It should do one or the other of two things:

Your method should do either:

A. Excute its instruction AND pass the flow of control to the next program instruction frame - OR -

B. HALT.