Make your Python modules available for installation via pip


Checklist to take your Python program with and, package the file with some functions definitions, and upload it to PyPI.

This will allow you to install it via pip and run the program as you described.

1. Prepare Your Modules should be ready with the required function:

def square(number): """Calculate the square of the given number.""" result = number ** 2 return result will be your script that uses the main_functions module:

import main_functions # This imports the module you created # Now you can use the square function from the math_functions module number_to_square = 10 squared_number = main_functions.square(number_to_square) print(squared_number*3)

2. Create a Setup File

Write a for packaging:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages
setup( name='main_functions', version='0.1', packages=find_packages(), description='Simple math function package', author='Your Name', author_email='', classifiers=[ 'Programming Language :: Python :: 3', 'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License', 'Operating System :: OS Independent', ], python_requires='>=3.6', )

3. Structure Your Project Directory

Organize your project directory as follows:

/your_package |-- /main_functions | |-- | `-- |-- |-- |-- (optional but recommended)

4. Build Your Package

Navigate to the root of your project directory where is located.
Run the following commands to build your package:

python -m pip install --upgrade setuptools wheel python sdist bdist_wheel

5. Upload to PyPI

Install Twine:

python -m pip install twine
Upload your package to PyPI using Twine:
twine upload dist/*

6. Install Your Package

Once uploaded, you (and anyone else) can install your package via pip:
pip install main_functions

7. Run Your Program

After installation, you can run anywhere on your system, provided that Python can find the installed main_functions package.

8. Maintain Your Package

Update your package as needed by modifying the code, incrementing the version number in, rebuilding, and re-uploading to PyPI.

This checklist provides a thorough guide to take your simple Python package from creation to deployment on PyPI, making it easily installable and usable across different systems.


What twine does

Twine is a utility for publishing Python packages on the Python Package Index (PyPI).
It is designed to securely upload your distribution packages to PyPI or other Python package indexes.
Here’s a rundown of its key functions and advantages:

Key Functions of Twine:

Secure Uploads: Twine uses HTTPS for secure communication with PyPI, ensuring that your credentials and the integrity of the packages being uploaded are not compromised.
Verification of Package Files: Twine checks that your package files are correctly formatted and will be accepted by PyPI before attempting to upload them.
This can save time and prevent errors during the upload process.
Support for Multiple Package Formats: Twine supports uploading both source distributions (sdist) and wheels (binary distributions), which are the two main types of Python distribution packages.
Ability to Upload to Different Repositories: While it's primarily used for uploading to PyPI, Twine can also upload packages to other repositories, such as TestPyPI, which is useful for testing package uploads.

Advantages of Using Twine:

Security: Unlike upload, which historically used insecure methods for uploading packages, Twine uses only secure APIs to interact with PyPI.
Practicality: Twine does not require you to rebuild your package before uploading, as it works directly with the files in your dist directory.
Simplicity and Reliability: Twine’s sole focus on package uploading means it is less prone to errors and complexities that can arise from tools that attempt to handle multiple aspects of package distribution.

Using Twine to Upload Packages:

After you have built your package using a tool like setuptools, you would typically use Twine as follows to upload it to PyPI:
Install Twine:
pip install twine
Navigate to your project’s dist directory where your package files are located.
Use Twine to upload all files in the dist directory to PyPI:

twine upload dist/*
You will be prompted to enter your PyPI username and password.
For enhanced security, it's recommended to use an API token from PyPI instead of your password.
Twine thus plays a crucial role in the Python ecosystem by providing a secure, reliable, and efficient way to distribute packages to the community.

The dist directory:
dist is not the directory where your source code resides. Instead, dist is the directory where the distribution packages of your Python project are stored after they have been built by

Here’s how it works:

The Role of the dist Directory

Building Your Package: When you prepare your Python project for distribution, you typically use a tool like setuptools along with commands such as python sdist bdist_wheel. ​These commands do the following:
sdist creates a source distribution—a compressed archive (such as a .tar.gz file) that contains all the files needed to compile and install your package, including your Python scripts,, and other relevant files.
bdist_wheel creates a wheel distribution—a build package that is more efficient for installation because it does not require the compilation step and is platform-specific.
Output Directory: Both of these commands place the generated distribution files (.tar.gz and .whl) in the dist directory located in the root of your project (the same directory where your file is).


Example Project Structure

Here’s an example of what your project directory might look like before and after running the build commands:
|-- /my_module
| |--
| `--

After running python sdist bdist_wheel, the structure will include a dist directory:
luaCopy code
|-- /dist
| |-- my_package-0.1-py3-none-any.whl
| `-- my_package-0.1.tar.gz
|-- /my_module
| |--
| `--


Using twine upload dist/*

When you use the command twine upload dist/*, Twine will look in the dist directory for any distribution files (both source and wheel files) and attempt to upload them to PyPI.
This command does not interact with your source code directly but rather with the built distribution files intended for distribution and installation.
So, in summary, the dist directory is specifically for storing the built distribution files, not your source code, and it is created when you build your package with tools like setuptools.

Example Code:

import main_functions # This imports the module you created

# Now you can use the square function from the math_functions module
number_to_square = 10
squared_number = main_functions.square(number_to_square)

def square(number):
"""Calculate the square of the given number."""
result = number ** 2
return result


How to create an account and work with PyPI

Creating an account on the Python Package Index (PyPI) and starting to work with it involves these steps.
Follow these steps to set up your account and begin using PyPI to manage and distribute Python packages:

Step 1: Create an Account on PyPI

Visit the PyPI website: Go to
in your web browser.
Register for an account: Click on the “Register” link at the top right of the homepage. You'll be directed to a registration form.
Fill out the registration form: Provide the required details, including a username, email address, and password. PyPI usernames must be unique and can contain letters, numbers, underscores, and hyphens.
Verify your email address: After submitting the registration form, PyPI will send a verification email to the address you provided. Follow the link in the email to verify your account.

Step 2: Secure Your Account with Two-Factor Authentication (Optional but Recommended)

Log in to your account and go to your user account settings.
Enable Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): PyPI supports 2FA, which adds an additional layer of security to your account. You can use an authentication app like Google Authenticator or Authy.

Step 3: Start Using PyPI

Once your account is set up, you can start using PyPI to upload and manage your packages. Here’s how to get started:

Upload a Package: Prepare your package with a

Before uploading, ensure you have prepared your package correctly with a file and any other required files (e.g.,, LICENSE).
Install the necessary tools: Make sure you have setuptools and wheel installed to package your project, and twine for securely uploading it.

pip install setuptools wheel twine

Package your project:

Navigate to your project directory (where is located) and run:

python sdist bdist_wheel

This command will generate distribution packages in the dist directory.
Upload your package with Twine:
To upload your package to PyPI, use the following command:
bashCopy code
twine upload dist/*
You will be prompted to enter your PyPI username and password.

Download and Install Packages

To install packages from PyPI, simply use pip. For example, to install the package requests, you would run:
bashCopy code
pip install requests

Step 4: Manage Your Packages

Update your packages: If you need to update a package, increment the version number in your, rebuild your package, and upload it again using Twine.
Remove or yank a release: If you release a version of a package by mistake, you can yank it from PyPI via the website interface. Yanking a release prevents users from installing it by default but keeps it available for projects that may depend on it.

Step 5: Use TestPyPI

Before uploading a new version of your package to PyPI, you can use , a separate instance of the package index intended for testing and experimentation. The process is similar to that of PyPI, but it ensures that everything works as expected before you make your package available on the main PyPI site.
Creating and managing an account on PyPI allows you to contribute to the Python community by making your own projects easily accessible to other developers.

To make your Python module,, available for installation via pip, you need to package it appropriately and then either distribute it through a
public repository like PyPI (the Python Package Index)
** or **
host it yourself.

Below is a step-by-step guide on how to prepare and distribute your module so it can be installed using pip.

Step 1: Organize Your Module

First, create a directory structure for your package. Here’s a simple layout:
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|-- main_functions/
| |--
| `--

main_functions/: This directory will contain your module. This file makes Python treat the directories as containing packages. It can be empty. This is your module file. This script will be used to install the package. A markdown file containing information about your package (optional but recommended).
LICENSE: The license file for your package (optional but recommended).

Step 2: Create the File

The file is a script where you define details about your package such as name, version, and more.
from setuptools import setup, find_packages

description='A simple example package with a square function',
author='Your Name',
url='URL to your project if available'

Step 3: Build the Package

Navigate to the root directory of your package (my_package/) and run the following command to build your package:
python sdist bdist_wheel
This command will create a dist directory containing your package distribution.

Step 4: Upload the Package to PyPI

To upload your package to PyPI, you can use twine, which is a utility for publishing Python packages on PyPI.
Install twine if you haven’t already:
pip install twine

Upload your package using twine:
twine upload dist/*
You'll need a PyPI account for this step.

Step 5: Installing the Package

Once your package is on PyPI, you (or anyone else) can install it using pip:
pip install main_functions

Local Installation (Alternative to PyPI)

If you don't want to upload your package to PyPI, you can install it directly from the local dist directory or even using a local directory structure.
To install directly from the source directory, navigate to your my_package/ directory and run:
bashCopy code
pip install .
Or, to install from the wheel file in the dist directory:
bashCopy code
pip install /path/to/your/dist/main_functions-0.1-py3-none-any.whl
After following these steps, you can use your main_functions package in any Python script, like your Ensure that all names and paths match the actual structure you have created, and adjust the details in according to your specific requirements.

How to upload your Python Package to the PyPI

To upload your Python package to the Python Package Index (PyPI), you need to follow a series of structured steps to ensure your package is properly formatted, built, and then uploaded. Here's a detailed breakdown of each step:

1. Prepare Your Package

Before uploading, ensure your package directory is properly structured. Refer to my previous message for a basic directory structure, including a file which is critical for the package metadata.

2. File

Ensure your is correctly set up.
This file contains all the necessary metadata about your package such as name, version, description, etc. Here is a minimal example:

from setuptools import setup, find_packages

name='main_functions', # Unique name for your package
version='0.1', # Version number
description='A Python package for basic mathematical functions',
long_description_content_type='text/markdown', # Markdown is recommended
author='Your Name',
url='', # Optional
license='MIT', # License type
'Development Status :: 3 - Alpha', # Development status
'Intended Audience :: Developers', # Target audience
'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License', # License
'Programming Language :: Python :: 3', # Python version support
'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.7',
'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.8',
'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.9',
'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.10',
keywords='example', # Keywords for your package
3. README and LICENSE This should provide a comprehensive description of your package, how to install it, and how to use it.
LICENSE: Include a LICENSE file that outlines the licensing for your package, e.g., MIT, GPL, etc.

4. Build Your Package
From the root directory of your package, where the is located, run the following command to build your package:

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python -m pip install --upgrade build
python -m build
This will create source and wheel distribution files in the dist/ directory.

5. Register on PyPI
Create accounts on PyPI and TestPyPI (a sandbox repository for testing):
6. Upload Your Package Using Twine
First, install Twine:

python -m pip install twine
It's a good practice to first upload your package to TestPyPI to ensure everything works as expected:

twine upload --repository testpypi dist/*
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