Understanding the Role of Big Data JSON Schema in AI Model Engineering


In today's lecture, we will delve into the topic of how Big Data JSON Schema plays a critical role in model engineering the AI Application.
We will explore its impact on running and providing conversational memory to AI models, allowing them to learn and evolve based on user interactions.

I. What is JSON Schema?

JSON Schema is a vocabulary that allows you to annotate and validate JSON documents. It's a powerful tool for structuring your JSON data, ensuring that the data is in the right format for further processing and analysis.
jsonCopy code
"type": "object",
"properties": {
"name": {
"type": "string"
"age": {
"type": "number"
"required": ["name", "age"]

In this basic example, the JSON Schema is used to validate an object that should contain a name and age. name should be a string, and age should be a number.

II. JSON Schema in AI/ML:

A. Organizing and Validating Data:

In the context of AI, JSON Schema helps in organizing and validating large datasets used for training machine learning models.
Imagine a machine learning model that predicts a person's health risk based on personal information. The training data for this model could contain thousands of individual records. Using a JSON Schema, we can ensure that each record contains all the necessary information (e.g., age, weight, height, etc.), and that each piece of data is of the correct type.

B. Facilitating Data Preprocessing:

Data preprocessing is a crucial step in building machine learning models.
JSON Schema aids in automating this process (CI CD), ensuring that the data fed into the model is clean and structured.

Goal in constructing the conversational AI chat bot is to make the conversational interactions emotionally emphathetic and context nuanced format.

III. JSON Schema and Conversational Memory:

A. Structured Data Storage:

JSON Schema plays a vital role in providing a structured format for storing conversational data in AI models.
Consider a chatbot AI. For the chatbot to learn and improve from user interactions, it must store and process conversation data. JSON Schema ensures that this data is consistently structured, allowing the AI to effectively analyze and learn from it.

B. Learning from User Interactions:

By ensuring the structured storage of conversation data, JSON Schema facilitates the AI model’s learning from user interactions.
Over time, as users interact with the chatbot, the structured conversational data can be analyzed to discern patterns, preferences, and common queries. This analysis enables the AI to enhance its responses and interactions, providing a better user experience.

IV. Challenges and Considerations:

While JSON Schema is immensely beneficial, it's essential to consider the overhead of schema validation, especially with vast datasets. Efficient implementation and optimization are crucial to leveraging the benefits without significant performance drawbacks.
With SQL: The SQL structure and database engine do most of the work for you.
WITH JSON: It is all on you to design a robust and extensible data model.


In summary, JSON Schema is paramount in structuring and validating big data for AI applications, ensuring that the AI models have a consistent and organized dataset for training and learning.
Moreover, in the realm of conversational AI, JSON Schema underpins the structured storage of conversational data, enabling AI models to effectively learn and improve from user interactions, thereby enhancing their performance and user experience.
However, because our Model is learning from users, we need to correct “model drift”: potentially bad behavior from people whose ideas we don’t want in our model.

Programming Mechanics of the PYTHON AI Tensor Model File: Interaction with Data Store for Learning from User Interactions

In this lecture, we’ll explore the programming mechanics underlying how AI tensor file models interact with their data stores to learn from user interactions.
The relationship between AI models and their data stores is a central aspect of machine learning, affecting both the training and inference phases of model development.
Building the AI Language Model is the fruit of the 6th Generation Programming Paradigm: which is: using Bayesian Methods to predict next token generation.
The thing which is going on with Inferential Programming is: NEXT TOKEN GENERATION.
Via the mechanism of Baysian Training: The PYTORCH TENSOR FILE outputs a stream of token in response to a prompt which is “most likely” to honor or reflect the token weightings in the Training Data Corpus.

I. Understanding Tensors in AI Models:

A. What is a Tensor?

In the context of machine learning and deep learning, a tensor is a multi-dimensional array that can store data and enable the performance of mathematical operations on that data.
Tensors are fundamental in neural network architectures, where they hold the weights, biases, and activations.

B. Role in AI:

Tensors are pivotal in transmitting data through different layers (AI is a Layered Architecture, compared to MVC which is a tightly partitioned architecture( of the neural network, undergoing transformations at each layer.
These transformations allow the network to learn complex patterns and make predictions or decisions based on input data.

II. Interaction Between Tensor Models and Data Stores:

A. Data Retrieval:

Data Preprocessing:
AI models retrieve structured data, often validated and organized using JSON Schema, from their data stores.
The data undergoes preprocessing, transforming it into a format suitable for the model (often as tensors).

# Python code using TensorFlow
import tensorflow as tf
# Assume 'data' is pre-processed and structured data from the data store
tensor_data = tf.convert_to_tensor(data)

B. Model Training:

During training, the model processes the tensors, calculates the loss, and adjusts its weights via backpropagation to minimize this loss.

# Python code using TensorFlow
model = ... # Assume 'model' is a pre-defined neural network model
model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='sparse_categorical_crossentropy'), epochs=5)

C. Feedback Loop:

Storing Learning:
After processing, the model's new weights and other learnings are stored back in the data store as tensors.
This feedback loop helps the model continuously learn and adapt to new data and user interactions.
# Python code using TensorFlow
# specify where on the file system the Tensor File is stored:'path/to/location')

III. Learning from User Interactions:

A. Updating the Model:

Continuous Learning:
With each user interaction, the AI model retrieves relevant data from the data store, processes it, and updates the model weights to improve its predictions or responses.
# Python code using TensorFlow new_data = ...
# Assume 'new_data' is new data from user interactions

tensor_new_data = tf.convert_to_tensor(new_data), epochs=1)

B. Ensuring Real-Time Learning:

Efficient Data Management:
Efficiently managing and indexing the data store is essential for real-time learning and updating of the AI model and maintaining its conversational memory with users.
Appropriate data structures and indexing methods ensure quick retrieval and updating of data, enabling the model to learn effectively from user interactions.


In essence, the AI tensor file model {created with the train() method of PYTORCH} and its JSON data store continuously interact, creating a dynamic learning environment.
The model retrieves data, processes it, learns from it, and updates the data store with new insights, forming a continuous cycle of learning and adaptation.
Understanding and optimizing these interactions is crucial for engineering AI models that effectively learn and evolve based on user interactions, ensuring consistent performance improvements and enhanced user experiences.

Lecture: The Primacy of JSON for Training and Running AI Models Over SQL Table Schema Data Store.


In today’s lecture, we will discuss why JSON is often preferred for training and running AI models, contrasting it with traditional SQL table schema data stores.
We will explore the structural, functional, and performance aspects that make JSON a more suitable choice for dealing with AI and machine learning workloads.

I. Understanding the JSON Format:

A. Key Features:

JSON does not use the SQL highly structure Table Schema which requires the support of the SQL database server engine to be maintained. JSON is just text. PYTHON can easily handle reading and writing large volumes of text:
JSON is a text schema, key:value pair data format, allowing more flexibility in handling varied and complex data structures which are often encountered in AI and ML datasets.
JSON can store structured data, arrays, and nested objects in a single document. Unlike SQL Table Schema data store which requires many relator tables, one for each many to many relationship.
Hierarchical Structure:
JSON's hierarchical structure enables easy representation of nested and multi-dimensional data, which is common in machine learning datasets.
Nested means that in terms of the key:value pairs which make up the “rowsets” of the JSON datastore: we have nested JSON documents as the values of the key:values.
Read my Big Data Powerpoints for charts and visualizations on this:

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B. Examples:

Consider representing a dataset containing texts, their corresponding sentiments, and metadata in JSON:
"text": "I love AI and machine learning.",
"sentiment": "positive",
"metadata": {
"source": "online forum",
"language": "English"

II. Limitations of SQL Table Schema Data Store for AI:

A. Fixed Schema:

SQL databases follow a fixed schema that can lead to issues when handling diverse and unstructured data typical in AI and machine learning.
Unstructured data has no primary key! According to Codd’s Laws: Rowsets are organized by Primary Key.

B. Handling Complex and Nested Data:

Representing complex, hierarchical, or multi-dimensional data in SQL requires creating multiple tables and relationships, which can be cumbersome and inefficient.

C. Scalability:

SQL databases may face challenges in scaling with high-volume, high-velocity data generated in AI/ML projects.

D. Examples:

Consider representing the same dataset in SQL. You would need multiple tables, keys, and relationships to represent hierarchical and meta-data information, leading to complexity.

III. Why Use JSON for AI Model Training and Running:

A. Flexibility:

Varied Data:
Handle diverse datasets, including unstructured and semi-structured data.
Easily adapt to changes in data structure without requiring major schema alterations.
Because JSON is a text-format data description language: We can programmatically change the shape of the data store containment under software control dynamically during program runtime.

B. Efficient Handling of Complex Data (Big Data = No Primary Key):

Single Document Storage:
JSON Document is a collection of key:value pairs contained in { curly braces }
Store complex and nested data in a single JSON document, eliminating the need for complex joins and queries. (predicate joins in SQL).
Facilitates Feature Engineering:
Features will be discussed when we cover the AI MODEL build process.
Feature Switches: Features can be switched on / off by the build script.
Easily extract and manipulate features from complex data structures.
Features are ENTITIES in the Enterprise Application (AI Model you are building).

C. Scalability:

Handling Big Data:
JSON-based NoSQL databases can efficiently scale with big data workloads.

D. Enhances Performance:

Quick Retrieval and Processing:
Fast query performance for complex and hierarchical data, enhancing the efficiency of AI model training and running.

E. Examples:

In training a machine learning model, the JSON format can seamlessly integrate diverse data types and structures, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the training process.

IV. Conclusion:

In conclusion, the use of JSON over SQL table schema data store for training and running AI models is primarily guided by its flexibility, efficiency in handling complex and diverse data, scalability, and enhanced performance.
While SQL databases have their own use cases and advantages:
SQL is good for highly structured environments in which you can easily identify a Primary Key.

JSON emerges as a more adaptable and scalable choice for the dynamic and diverse world of AI and machine learning, ensuring efficient and effective model training and operation.

AI Model Layered Architecture:

Is the Tensor file stored in JSON format

In machine learning, a tensor file typically does not directly use the JSON format for storage.
Tensor files, such as those used by TensorFlow (a popular machine learning library), are generally stored in specific formats optimized for speed and efficiency, like the Protocol Buffer (protobuf) format used by TensorFlow to store the model weights and architecture.

Why Not JSON?

1. Efficiency:

The JSON format, while highly human-readable and versatile, is not the most space or time-efficient way to store large numerical matrices typical of neural network weights.
Storing tensor data in JSON format might result in larger file sizes and slower read/write operations compared to more optimized formats.

2. Precision:

JSON, which typically uses floating-point notation for numbers, might not maintain the exact precision required for neural network weights, potentially impacting the model's performance.

How Are Tensors Stored?

1. Protocol Buffers:

TensorFlow, for example, uses Protocol Buffers, a language-agnostic binary serialization format developed by Google. It's used to serialize structured data.
It is more efficient in terms of both space and time compared to JSON for large arrays of data.

2. HDF5 Format:

Other libraries might use the HDF5 file format, a model and data storage format that can store large amounts of data, along with the metadata describing that data, in a highly compressed binary format.
Like Protocol Buffers, HDF5 is more efficient than JSON for storing large numerical datasets.

Can JSON Be Used At All?

JSON might be used in other parts of a machine learning pipeline:
Metadata Storage:
JSON can be used to store metadata about the model, such as training configurations, hyperparameters, or information about the data preprocessing pipeline.
Data Interchange Format:
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