Introduce Hugging Face Spaces


Lecture: Understanding PyTorch Tensors for NLP -

Tokens and Weighting in Training Corpora

Introduction to PyTorch Tensors

What are PyTorch Tensors? A data structure to store the Tokens and Weightings of the AI MODEL
- Created from the Training Corpus
- Created using API Method Calls provided by the PYTHON NLTK Libraries: PyTorch and TensorFlow
A tensor in PyTorch is a multi-dimensional array, similar to NumPy arrays but with the added capability of running on Graphical Processor Units. Remember where you can rent cloud services to access GPUs.
Tensors are the fundamental data structure in PyTorch and are used for all operations within the library.

Tensors in the Context of Natural Language Processing

Role of Tensors in Natural Language Processing (NLP):
In NLP, tensors are used to represent text data, including tokens (words or characters) and their associated numerical representations. Remember the assignment in which you make a Word Embedding.
Tensors can handle the embeddings, which are dense representations of words or tokens in high-dimensional space.

Tokenization and Its Representation

Understanding Tokenization:
Tokenization is performed with method calls on the PYTORCH library. It is the process of converting text into smaller units (tokens), which could be words, characters, or subwords.
It's a crucial step in preparing data for NLP tasks.
Representing Tokens as Tensors: {Tensors are numeric representations of text}
Each token (word or character) is mapped to a unique integer in a process known as word indexing or token indexing.
These indices are then used to create tensors which are inputs into NLP models.

Weighting in Training Corpora

Importance of Weighting:
Weighting refers to the process of assigning importance to different tokens in a corpus.
Techniques like TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) or word embeddings are used to assign these weights.
Embeddings as Weighted Representations:
Word embeddings (like Word2Vec, GloVe) provide a dense, weighted representation of tokens based on their contextual usage.
These embeddings are often stored as tensors in PyTorch, allowing efficient computation and manipulation.

PyTorch Tensor Operations for NLP

Basic Tensor Operations:
Demonstrate how to create tensors in PyTorch.
Show tensor operations relevant to NLP, such as
reshaping, and
which are useful in preprocessing and model building.
How we do ‘next token generation’.
Coding Example: Creating and Manipulating Text Tensors

import torch

# Example of creating a tensor from token indices
token_indices = [10, 256, 1024]
text_tensor = torch.tensor(token_indices)

# Reshaping the tensor
reshaped_tensor = text_tensor.view(1, -1)

print("Original Tensor:", text_tensor)
print("Reshaped Tensor:", reshaped_tensor)

Handling Embeddings:
Explain how pre-trained embeddings can be loaded into PyTorch tensors.
Demonstrate how these embeddings are used to represent text in machine learning models.
Coding Example: Loading and Using Embeddings

import torch.nn as nn

# Assuming a pre-trained embedding matrix is available
embedding_matrix = ... # Some pre-loaded embedding matrix

# Creating an embedding layer in PyTorch
embedding_layer = nn.Embedding.from_pretrained(embedding_matrix)

# Example input - indices for the words 'Hello' and 'World'
input_indices = torch.tensor([59, 102], dtype=torch.long)

# Fetching embeddings for the input
embeddings = embedding_layer(input_indices)
print("Embeddings:", embeddings)

Before completing the coding example, let's delve into a brief lecture on PyTorch's nn module and the concept of embeddings.

Understanding the nn Module in PyTorch

Overview of nn Module:
nn in PyTorch stands for 'neural network'.
This module is the foundation stone of PyTorch, providing the building blocks for constructing neural networks.
It includes layers, activation functions, loss functions, and more, all crucial for building deep learning models.
Key Components of nn Module:
Layers: Fundamental elements like linear layers (nn.Linear), convolutional layers (nn.Conv2d), and recurrent layers (nn.LSTM, nn.GRU).
These are the 3 basic architectural patterns of an AI MODEL:
Activation Functions: Non-linearities like ReLU (nn.ReLU), Sigmoid, and Tanh.
Loss Functions: Such as nn.MSELoss for regression tasks or nn.CrossEntropyLoss for classification.

Embeddings in PyTorch

What are Embeddings?
Embeddings provide a way to convert discrete, categorical data (like words) into continuous vectors.
In NLP, word embeddings map words to high-dimensional vectors where semantically similar words are close in the vector space.
Why Use Embeddings?
Embeddings capture semantic (meaning) relationships between words.
They reduce the dimensionality of the categorical data, making it easier to process by neural networks.

Completing the Coding Example: Loading and Using Embeddings

Providing a Pre-Trained Embedding Matrix:
In a real-world scenario, this matrix might come from a pre-trained model like Word2Vec or GloVe.
For this example, let’s create a dummy embedding matrix with 1000 tokens, each represented by a 300-dimensional vector.

import torch
import torch.nn as nn

# Creating a dummy embedding matrix with 1000 tokens, each being a 300-
# dimensional vector

embedding_matrix = torch.rand(1000, 300)

# Creating an embedding layer in PyTorch
embedding_layer = nn.Embedding.from_pretrained(embedding_matrix)

# Example input - indices for two hypothetical words
input_indices = torch.tensor([59, 102], dtype=torch.long)

# Fetching embeddings for the input
embeddings = embedding_layer(input_indices)
print("Embeddings:", embeddings)

Explanation of the Code:
We first create a random tensor embedding_matrix representing our embedding weights. In practice, this would be replaced with a pre-trained embedding matrix.
nn.Embedding.from_pretrained() creates an embedding layer using the provided matrix.
The input_indices represent indices of words in our embedding matrix. Here, 59 and 102 could be indices for any two words in our vocabulary.
embedding_layer(input_indices) retrieves the embeddings for these indices.

Conclusion and Applications

Understanding and utilizing embeddings are crucial in many NLP tasks like text classification, language modeling, and machine translation.
PyTorch's nn module provides an efficient and flexible way to incorporate embeddings and other neural network layers into your models.


Recap the significance of tensors in representing textual data for NLP tasks.
Highlight the importance of understanding tensor operations and embeddings in PyTorch for efficient NLP model development.
Q&A Session:
Invite questions regarding tensor manipulation, tokenization, embeddings, and their practical applications in NLP projects.
This lecture aims to provide a foundational understanding of PyTorch tensors, especially in the context of NLP, covering everything from tokenization to the use of weighted embeddings.

Lecture: TensorFlow vs. PyTorch in AI Application Development


Purpose of the Lecture:
To compare and contrast TensorFlow and PyTorch, two leading libraries in AI development, focusing on their features, architecture, and usage in AI application development.

Overview of TensorFlow

What is TensorFlow?
Developed by Google, TensorFlow is an open-source library for numerical computation and machine learning.
It is widely used for deep learning applications.
Key Features:
Strong support for deep learning and neural network modeling.
Graph execution model, where computation is represented as a graph.
Extensive ecosystem including tools like TensorBoard, TensorFlow.js, TensorFlow Lite, etc.

Overview of PyTorch

What is PyTorch?
Developed by Facebook, PyTorch is an open-source machine learning library.
Known for its simplicity, ease of use, and dynamic computation graph.
Key Features:
Dynamic computation graph (autograd system) that provides flexibility.
Strong support for deep learning and high-level features through Torchvision, Torchaudio, etc.
Easy-to-use API, which is very Pythonic in nature.

Code Examples

TensorFlow Example: Simple Neural Network
import tensorflow as tf

# Load and prepare the dataset
mnist = tf.keras.datasets.mnist
(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data()
x_train, x_test = x_train / 255.0, x_test / 255.0

# Build the model
model = tf.keras.models.Sequential([
tf.keras.layers.Flatten(input_shape=(28, 28)),
tf.keras.layers.Dense(128, activation='relu'),

# Compile and train the model
metrics=['accuracy']), y_train, epochs=5)
model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=2)

PyTorch Example: Simple Neural Network
pythonCopy code
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.optim as optim
from torchvision import datasets, transforms

# Load and prepare the dataset
train_loader =
datasets.MNIST('./data', train=True, download=True,
transforms.Normalize((0.1307,), (0.3081,))
batch_size=64, shuffle=True)

test_loader =
datasets.MNIST('./data', train=False,
transforms.Normalize((0.1307,), (0.3081,))
batch_size=1000, shuffle=True)

# Define the network
class Net(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(Net, self).__init__()
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(28*28, 128)
self.fc2 = nn.Linear(128, 10)

def forward(self, x):
x = F.relu(self.fc1(x.view(-1, 28*28)))
x = self.fc2(x)
return x

net = Net()
optimizer = optim.Adam(net.parameters())

# Train the model
for epoch in range(5):
for batch_idx, (data, target) in enumerate(train_loader):
output = net(data)
loss = F.cross_entropy(output, target)

# Evaluate the model
with torch.no_grad():
for data, target in test_loader:
output = net(data)
test_loss = F.cross_entropy(output, target, reduction='sum').item()

Comparison of TensorFlow and PyTorch

TensorFlow uses a static computation graph, which is defined once and then executed.
PyTorch employs a dynamic computation graph that is created on the fly and more Pythonic.
Ease of Use:
TensorFlow’s learning curve is steeper due to its comprehensive and detailed architecture.
PyTorch is often favored for its simplicity and ease of use, especially for beginners.
Debugging in TensorFlow can be more challenging due to its static graph nature.
PyTorch’s dynamic nature allows for easier debugging using standard Python debugging tools.
Community and Support:
TensorFlow has extensive support and a larger community, partly due to its earlier release.
PyTorch has gained rapid popularity and is now comparable in terms of community support and resources.
Both provide similar levels of performance in terms of speed and scalability, with TensorFlow slightly leading in distributed training scenarios.
Industry Adoption:
TensorFlow is widely adopted in industry, with an extensive range of tools and platforms supporting it.
PyTorch is preferred in research settings due to its flexibility and ease of experimentation.


The choice between TensorFlow and PyTorch often depends on the specific requirements of the project, the developer’s familiarity with the libraries, and the nature of the work (research vs. production).

Q&A Session

Encourage questions and discussion about the practical aspects of using TensorFlow and PyTorch in different AI development scenarios.
This lecture aims to provide an in-depth understanding of TensorFlow and PyTorch, enabling students and professionals to make informed decisions based on their project needs and personal preferences.


Lecture: Comparing Google Collab Notebooks and Hugging Face Spaces as AI Development Platforms


Purpose of the Lecture:
To provide an understanding of Google Colab and Hugging Face Spaces, highlighting their features, differences, and use cases in AI development.

Overview of Google Collab

What is Google Collab?
A free cloud service based on Jupyter Notebooks that supports Python language.
Integrated with Google Drive and Google Cloud for easy access and storage of files.
Key Features:
Provides free access to GPUs and TPUs for machine learning projects.
Allows collaborative work and sharing of notebooks easily.
Direct integration with GitHub.
Typical Use Cases:
Experimentation and development of machine learning models.
Data analysis and visualization.
Educational purposes for learning Python and machine learning.

Overview of Hugging Face Spaces

What is Hugging Face Spaces?
A cloud platform for building, hosting, and sharing machine learning applications.
Known for seamless integration with the Transformers library.
Key Features:
Supports deployment of apps with interactive web interfaces.
Integration with Hugging Face's Model Hub.
Compatible with various ML frameworks like TensorFlow, PyTorch, and JAX.
Typical Use Cases:
Deployment and demonstration of machine learning models in a web environment.
Sharing and showcasing ML projects with interactive elements.
Community engagement and feedback on ML projects.

Comparison of Google Colab and Hugging Face Spaces

Purpose and Orientation:
Google Colab is more oriented towards the development, training, and experimentation phase.
Hugging Face Spaces is focused on deployment and sharing of interactive ML applications.
Computational Resources:
Colab offers GPUs and TPUs, beneficial for intensive ML tasks.
Spaces primarily provides hosting services rather than computational resources.
User Interface:
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