Historical Development of IT Technology

Note: If you use this for your Learning Activity / LINKED IN Article, think about and comment on how the approach to software quality management and testing has changed over the Decades.


The History of Computer Engineering:

Programming Paradigms:

EPOCH 1: Big Iron

very simple vision of programming
1940: Konrad Zuse builds the first programmable computer, the Z3. 1946: John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry develop the first electronic digital computer. 1951: UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer, is unveiled by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. 1957: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik, beginning the "Space Race" and sparks an interest in computer technology for use in missile defense. 1958: Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce independently invent the microchip.

Epoch 2: The Mini Computer

1960s: Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduces their PDP series of minicomputers, leading to the growth of the minicomputer market. In the 1960s, computer technology was still in its early stages and the concept of a personal computer or operating system as we know it today did not yet exist. Instead, computers were large, expensive machines that were primarily used by government and research institutions. During this time, a few key developments laid the foundation for the operating systems of the future.

The Development of the Operating System

One of the most significant developments in the 1960s was the creation of the first operating system for general-purpose computers, known as the "Multics" (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) system.

Developed by a team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Bell Labs and General Electric, it was intended to be a highly reliable, multi-user operating system for large-scale computers.

Although the project was eventually abandoned, some of the concepts and ideas developed for Multics would later influence the development of Unix, which would in turn become the basis for Linux.

The First Programming Languages: Fortran and Cobol

Another important development during the 1960s was the creation of the first high-level programming languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.
These languages allowed for more efficient and user-friendly programming, making it possible for more people to write and use computer programs.

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Unix operating system was developed by AT&T Bell Labs and quickly gained popularity among academic and research institutions. Unix was designed to be a multiuser, multitasking system and it's open-source nature allowed for it to be widely used and modified.

The development of Unix and the availability of its source code would be a key factor in the development of Linux, an open-source operating system that was first released in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is based on the Unix operating system, but it is free and open-source, meaning that anyone can use, modify, and distribute the software.
Linux has since become one of the most widely used operating systems in the world, particularly in servers, supercomputers and mobile devices.

The MicroChip

1971: Intel releases the first microprocessor, the 4004.
1972: The first commercial computer game, "Pong," is released by Atari.
1973: Robert Metcalfe invents Ethernet, a networking technology for connecting computers.
1976: Apple Computer is founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne.

1978: Commodore PET is the World’s First mass production home computer. People brought these into the office to use VisiCalc - The first Spreadsheet.
1979: VisiCalc is released for the Apple II computer
1981: VisiCalc is released for the IBM PC
1982: VisiCalc becomes the best-selling software for home computers
1985: Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet program with more advanced features, is released and begins to compete with VisiCalc
1985: VisiCorp, the company behind VisiCalc, is acquired by Lotus Development Corporation
1987: VisiCalc is phased out as sales decline in the face of competition from Lotus 1-2-3 and other spreadsheet programs.
1981: IBM releases its first personal computer, the IBM PC.
1982: The IBM AS/400 is released.
1983: DEC releases the VAX VMS operating system.
1985: Apple Mac is released: spawning the industries of desktop publishing, music and video editing.

1989: Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web, making the internet more accessible to the general public.
1990s: The dot-com boom sees the rapid development of the internet and the rise of companies such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook. 1990s: Home computers become more prevalent and accessible to the general public, leading to the growth of the personal computer market. 2000s: The development of smartphones and social media leads to an increase in internet usage and the rise of mobile internet. 2010s: The development of artificial intelligence and machine learning leads to the rise of virtual assistants and chatbots. 2020s: The continued growth of AI and the rise of 5G technology leads to the development of autonomous vehicles and the Internet of Things (IoT) becoming more prevalent. 2030s: The integration of AI and blockchain technology leads to the rise of decentralized systems and smart cities. 2040s: Virtual and augmented reality become more prevalent, leading to the development of new forms of entertainment and communication. 2050s: The development of quantum computing leads to significant advancements in fields such as medicine and finance. 2060s: The continued growth of AI leads to the development of advanced robots and automation, potentially leading to significant changes in the job market. 2070s: The development of advanced brain-computer interfaces leads to the creation of new forms of human-computer interaction. 2080s: The use of advanced nanotechnology leads to the development of new materials and medical treatments. 2090s: The development of fusion energy leads to a significant reduction in the use of fossil fuels. 2100: The continued advancements in technology leads to the creation of a highly connected and automated society, with the potential for significant changes in the way we live and work. As technology continues to advance, there will be an increasing number of career opportunities in both hardware and software development. Graduates who are able to quickly learn and apply new technologies will be well-positioned to make a name for themselves and achieve success in the field. With the growth of IoT and the increasing number of devices being connected to the internet, there will be a need for professionals who can design and develop new hardware and software solutions to meet this demand. Graduates who are interested in pursuing a career in technology should focus on developing their skills in areas such as programming, networking, and data analysis. They should also be prepared to continue learning and adapting to new technologies as they emerge.
And finally, a message from the future to all of you: Dear Students, As we enter the 2020s, the field of computer technology is rapidly evolving and offers an endless array of exciting career opportunities. The demand for skilled professionals in areas such as artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, and the Internet of Things is at an all-time high, and the future looks bright for those who are prepared to take advantage of the opportunities that lie ahead. If you want to put yourself in the best position to land one of the most exciting jobs in computers in the 2020s, here are five specific action points that you can take to make it happen:
Stay current with the latest technologies: The field of computer technology is constantly changing, so it's important to stay up-to-date with the latest trends and developments. This means keeping an eye on emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and blockchain, and gaining a solid understanding of how they work and how they're being used in industry.
Develop a strong skillset: Having a diverse set of skills is essential for success in the field of computer technology. This means not only learning how to code, but also developing skills in areas such as data analysis, user experience design, and project management.
Build a strong online presence: The computer industry is a highly collaborative and globalized field, and having a strong online presence can open up opportunities for networking, learning, and showcasing your work. Building a personal website, contributing to open-source projects, and being active on social media can help you build your brand and connect with potential employers.
Get hands-on experience: The best way to learn about computer technology is by doing it. Seek out opportunities to work on real-world projects, such as internships, co-op programs, or hackathons. This will give you the opportunity to apply what you've learned in the classroom to real-world situations and gain valuable experience that will make you stand out to potential employers.
Network and make connections: The computer industry is all about connections, and networking is a crucial part of building a successful career. Attend industry events, join professional organizations, and reach out to people in the field you are interested in. The more people you know, the more opportunities you'll have to learn, grow, and advance in your career.
Remember, the field of computer technology is constantly evolving and the opportunities are endless. With hard work, dedication, and a willingness to take risks and try new things, you can put yourself in the best position to land one of the most exciting jobs in computers in the 2020s.
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