Abhidharma pitaka -- higher teachings, philosophy Alaya-vijñana -- "store" consciousness (similar to collective unconscious?) Amitabha -- the Buddha of the Western "Pure Land." Also known as Amida. Ananda -- Buddha's friend, cousin, and favorite disciple, and the monk who remembered the Sutras. Anatman (anatta) -- not-self, self or ego not ultimately real. Annitya (anicca) -- change, impermanence of all things, including us. Arahant -- Worthy one, a name for the Buddha. Arhat -- a monk who has achieved nirvana. Asanga -- one of two brothers who lived in India in the 300's ad who developed Yogachara. Asita -- the astrologer who predicts Buddha's fate Asuras -- titans or demigods. Avalokiteshwara -- boddhisattva of compassion Avidya (avijja) -- ignorance, delusion. Bardo -- (Tibet) the period between death and rebirth. Bhagava -- The blessed one, a name for the Buddha. Bodh-gaya -- a town in Bihar where Buddha was enlightened at 35. Bodhi -- enlightenment, awakening. Bodhi tree -- the fig tree under which Buddha gained enlightenment. Bodhicitta -- sanskrit word for 'mind of enlightenment' Bodhidharma -- monk who brought Buddhism to China. Bodhisattva -- enlightened being who remains in this existence to help others, a saint. Brahma -- the supreme deva, who convinced Buddha to teach. Brahma vihara -- four "sublime states" of the boddhisattva: Maitri, Karuna, Mudita, Upeksa. Buddha -- The awakened one, the enlightened one. Ch'an -- Chinese for Zen Buddhism. Chandaka -- Buddha's squire, who helped him leave his princely life. Ching-T'u -- Chinese for Pure Land. Citta -- basic mind or consciousness Citta-matra -- mind only, idealism Dalai Lama -- the leader of Tibetan Buddhists. Deer Park -- where Buddha gave his first sermon, in Sarnath, near Benares, to the five sadhus. Dependent origination -- "one thing leads to another," all is connected. Devadatta -- Buddha's "evil" cousin. "Theodore." Dhamma -- Pali for dharma. Dharma (dhamma) -- the teachings of the Buddha. Dharmakaya -- Buddha-mind, the pervasive essence Dharmas -- ultimate elements of the universe (not dharma as in teachings!) Dhyana (ch'an, zen) -- meditation. Dogen (1200-1253) -- monk who brought Soto Zen to Japan. Duhkha (dukkha) -- suffering, distress, lack of peace. First noble truth. Dzogchen -- Tibetan tantric techniques for rapid enlightenment. Dvesha (dosha) -- hatred, anger, avoidance. Eightfold Path -- right view, aspiration, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration. Five sadhus -- the five ascetics who practiced self-mortification with the Buddha. Flower Adornment School -- a sect which attempted to consolidate all forms of Buddhism. Also known as Hua-Yen or Kegon. Gandharvas -- angelic beings who provide the gods with music. Gati -- realm. Used to refer to the six realms (gods, titans, humans, animals, ghosts, and demons) Gautama (Gotama) -- Buddha's family name. Hinayana -- southern Buddhism ("small or lesser vehicle or journey"). Ho-tei -- Japanese name for Pu-tai Indra -- a major deva, originally the Hindu sky god. Jodo, Jodoshin -- Japanese for Pure Land. Kalpa -- millions of years, an eternity. Kanthaka -- Buddha's horse. Kapilavastu -- Shakyan capital, where Buddha grew up. Karma (kamma) -- intentional or willed act. Karuna -- compassion or mercy, the special kindness shown to those who suffer. One of the four brahma vihara. Kashinagara -- were Buddha died (near Lumbini), in a grove of sala trees. Koan -- a very brief story demonstrating the paradoxical nature of dualistic thinking. Used in Zen meditation. Kwan Yin , Kwannon -- Chinese and Japanese names for Avalokiteswara. Lama -- Tibetan tantric master, now often used to refer to any respected monk. Lumbini Grove -- where Buddha was born, during his mother's trip to her parents' home. Madhyamaka -- middle way, negative logic, not this -- not that Mahakyashapa -- the monk who understood the silent sermon and led the first council. Mahamaya, or Mayadevi -- Buddha's mother, who died seven days after his birth Mahaprajapati -- Buddha's aunt and stepmother, founder of Buddhist nuns. Mahayana -- northern Buddhism ("large or greater vehicle or journey"). Maitreya -- the future Buddha, who will be born 30,000 years from now. Maitri -- caring, loving kindness displayed to all you meet. One of the four brahma vihara. Manas -- I-consciousness, mind, intelligence Mandala -- a complex, circular, symmetrical image used in meditation Mantra -- a phrase or syllable repeated during meditation Mara -- a deva associated with death and hindrances to enlightenment. It was Mara who tempted Buddha under the bodhi tree. Marga -- the path, track. The eightfold noble path. Fourth noble truth. Metta -- Pali for Maitri. Mudita -- sympathetic joy, being happy for others, without a trace of envy. One of the four brahma vihara. Mudra -- symbolic hand positions Nagarjuna -- monk who developed Madhyamaka in India about 150 ad. Nagas -- great serpents (or dragons, or water creatures). The king of the Nagas protected Buddha from a storm. Narakas -- demons (hell beings) Nibbana -- Pali for nirvana. Nichiren -- Japanese school popular in west, and the name of its founder. Emphasizes chanting. Nirmankaya -- Gotama, the historical Buddha. Nirodha -- containment of suffering. Third noble truth. Nirvana (nibbana) -- liberation, enlightenment, release from samsara. Pali -- a language related to Sanskrit in which the earliest scriptures were recorded in Sri Lanka. Pali canon -- see the Tripitaka.
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