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Toulmin System

Steps to make an argument
LE
Leila Elkurjie
Backing
Additional support for the warrant. In many cases, the warrant is an implied statement, so a backing supports the warrant by providing a specific example that justifies it.
Ex. You know that your neighbor Piere has two poodles.


Warrant
Either implied or stated, the warrant is the assumption that ties the grounds to the claim.
Ex. Dogs are animals that naturally bark.


Grounds Qualifier Claim
The evidence & facts supporting the claim.
Ex. You are hearing a barking sound.

Hints that the claim may not be true in all circumstances.
Ex. So, most likely . . .
The assertion for authors to prove to their audience. Aka the main argument.
Ex. There are dogs nearby.


Rebuttal
The acknowledgement of an additional valid view of the situation. Ex. Unless there are coyotes or wolves nearby.

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