Syllabus Breakdown

M.A Criminology (with specialization in Forensic Psychology)


Criminology is the study of crime, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. Here are some key subtopics:
Theories of Crime:
Classical and Neo-Classical Theories
Biological Theories (e.g., Lombroso's theory)
Psychological Theories (e.g., Eysenck’s theory, psychopathy)
Sociological Theories (e.g., Strain Theory, Social Learning Theory, Labeling Theory)
Integrated Theories (e.g., Life Course Theory)
Types of Crime:
Violent Crimes (e.g., homicide, assault)
Property Crimes (e.g., burglary, theft)
White-Collar Crimes (e.g., fraud, embezzlement)
Cyber Crimes
Organized Crime
Crime Statistics and Trends:
Sources of Crime Data (e.g., Uniform Crime Reports, National Crime Victimization Survey)
Crime Trends and Patterns
Dark Figure of Crime
Criminal Justice System:
Role and Function of Law Enforcement
Role of Courts and Judiciary
Correctional Institutions and Rehabilitation


The police are a crucial component of the criminal justice system. Key subtopics include:
History and Evolution of Policing:
Early Forms of Policing
Development of Modern Policing
Roles and Responsibilities:
Crime Prevention and Investigation
Public Order Maintenance
Community Policing
Policing Strategies:
Reactive vs. Proactive Policing
Zero Tolerance Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing
Intelligence-Led Policing
Challenges in Policing:
Police Corruption and Misconduct
Use of Force and Accountability
Police-Community Relations
Technological Advancements in Policing


Prisons are institutions designed to house individuals convicted of crimes. Key subtopics include:
History and Purpose of Prisons:
Evolution of Prisons
Objectives of Imprisonment (Punishment, Deterrence, Rehabilitation)
Types of Prisons:
Maximum Security
Medium Security
Minimum Security
Juvenile Detention Centers
Prison Management and Operations:
Prison Administration
Inmate Classification and Management
Prison Labor and Programs
Issues in Prisons:
Prison Violence and Gangs
Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment
Recidivism and Reintegration

Court Systems

The court system is responsible for interpreting and applying the law. Key subtopics include:
Structure of the Court System:
Hierarchical Structure (Lower Courts, Appellate Courts, Supreme Court)
Specialized Courts (e.g., Family Court, Drug Court)
Roles within the Court System:
Defense Attorneys
Court Processes and Procedures:
Pre-Trial Procedures (Arraignment, Bail)
Trial Process (Jury Selection, Evidence Presentation)
Sentencing and Appeals
Issues in the Court System:
Access to Justice
Legal Representation and Public Defenders
Sentencing Disparities
Judicial Independence and Accountability

Child Protection

Child protection involves safeguarding children from abuse and neglect. Key subtopics include:
Types of Child Abuse and Neglect:
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Emotional Abuse
Child Protection Laws and Policies:
Mandatory Reporting Laws
Child Protective Services (CPS)
Family Preservation and Reunification
Investigative and Intervention Procedures:
Risk Assessment
Forensic Interviews
Emergency Removal and Placement
Impact of Abuse and Neglect:
Psychological and Emotional Impact
Long-Term Consequences
Treatment and Support Services

Major Laws Dealing with Crimes

Understanding key laws that address various crimes is essential. Key subtopics include:
Criminal Law Fundamentals:
Elements of a Crime (Actus Reus, Mens Rea)
Types of Offenses (Felonies, Misdemeanors)
Specific Major Laws:
Criminal Procedure Laws (e.g., Fourth Amendment rights, Miranda Rights)
Anti-Terrorism Laws
Drug Laws (Controlled Substances Act)
Cybercrime Laws
Anti-Money Laundering Laws
Landmark Cases:
Important Supreme Court Decisions (e.g., Miranda v. Arizona, Mapp v. Ohio)
International Criminal Law:
International Treaties and Conventions (e.g., Geneva Conventions)
War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity


General Awareness on Social Issues

Understanding current and historical social issues is crucial. Key subtopics include:
Poverty and Inequality:
Causes of Poverty
Economic Inequality
Social Stratification
Impact on Health and Education
Discrimination and Racism:
Types of Discrimination (e.g., Racial, Gender, Age)
Systemic Racism
Civil Rights Movements
Health and Healthcare:
Access to Healthcare
Public Health Issues
Mental Health Awareness
Educational Inequality
Role of Education in Society
Education Reforms
Environmental Issues:
Climate Change
Pollution and Waste Management
Sustainable Development


Society encompasses the organized patterns of relationships and institutions. Key subtopics include:
Social Structure:
Elements of Social Structure (Status, Roles, Institutions)
Social Institutions (Family, Education, Religion, Economy, Government)
Components of Culture (Norms, Values, Beliefs, Symbols)
Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism
Subcultures and Countercultures
Agents of Socialization (Family, Peers, Media, Education)
Theories of Socialization (Mead’s Theory of the Self, Cooley’s Looking Glass Self)
Social Change:
Factors Driving Social Change (Technology, Social Movements, Policy)
Theories of Social Change (Evolutionary, Conflict, Cyclical)


Gender studies examine the social and cultural constructions of gender. Key subtopics include:
Gender Roles and Stereotypes:
Traditional Gender Roles
Gender Socialization
Impact of Stereotypes
Gender Inequality:
Wage Gap
Gender Discrimination
Representation in Politics and Business
Feminism and Gender Theories:
Waves of Feminism
Masculinity Studies
LGBTQ+ Issues:
Rights and Recognition
Social Acceptance
Impact of Policies

Social Movements

Social movements are collective actions aimed at social change. Key subtopics include:
Types of Social Movements:
Reform Movements
Revolutionary Movements
Resistance Movements
New Social Movements (e.g., Environmental, Digital)
Stages of Social Movements:
Theories of Social Movements:
Resource Mobilization Theory
Political Process Theory
New Social Movement Theory
Impact of Social Movements:
Policy Changes
Social and Cultural Changes
Case Studies (e.g., Civil Rights Movement, Women’s Suffrage Movement)


The family is a primary social institution. Key subtopics include:
Family Structures:
Nuclear Family
Extended Family
Single-Parent Families
Blended Families
Marriage and Divorce:
Patterns of Marriage
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