Cultural products e.g. TV programmes, video games – Italics
Brand names Capitalized roman
Buildings Capitalized roman
a) When referring to decades, frieze uses the century (e.g. 1980s, 1990s, etc.).
b) After the first mention in a sentence of a decade (e.g. the 1970s), it is permissible to thereafter use the abbreviated form (e.g. 1970s and ’80s)
c) When referring to an approximate period within a decade: mid-1970s is hyphenated but early and late are not. If it is adjectival, however, it should be hyphenated: e.g., late-’80s music.
d) In body text dates of works follow the title of the work in brackets. They are not italicized or bold: e.g. Mother and Child (1576).
e) Years are separated by en dashes (alt + hyphen) rather than hyphens and without spaces on either side: e.g. 1972–74, with two digits always appearing after the en-dash if the dates are from the same century
f) If the date is approximate we use c. and not circa. The c. is in roman and is closed up to the following figure (c.1627).
g) If the dates are the same for all the works in an article, the date will be mentioned the first time as (all works 1999) but not repeated after that.
h) 21st century (not superscript, lower case). A hyphen is used if adjectival: 21st-century building
i) Date style: 12 October 1654 (no punctuation)
i) Time of day 10pm (no stops and no gap before the pm am)
j) With early dates we use bce and ce (e.g. ce 10).
k) The format for an ongoing series or work is: 1996–ongoing. There should be no space between the date and ‘ongoing’.
l) If a work was remade or reperformed, the date should be separated by a slash, e.g. 1969/2007 or 2001/07.
m) When giving exhibition dates (e.g. in artist and writer bio lines) we use an en-dash to separate the dates (e.g. 1 April – 30 May; 1–24 April)
i) Numbers up to and including ten are written as a word.
ii) Numbers from 11 are written as numerals, unless at the start of a sentence.
iii) An exception to the above is if a sentence begins with a date (‘2017 marked the beginning of…’)
iv) 4,000 etc. (comma before last 3 digits but no gap)
v) GB£50 or US$50 rather than 50 pounds or 50 dollars (note that we don’t use GBP£ and USD$, as $ stands for dollar and £ stands for pound)
Proper names will be referred to by first and surname the first time they are mentioned and then only by the surname – unless the text mentions two people with identical surnames: e.g. Tony Smith and David Smith.
In foreign surnames with two parts (e.g. Van Gogh), the first part is lower case when the full name is given (Vincent van Gogh) and upper case when only the surname is given (Van Gogh).
The following people are sufficiently well known that they can be referred to by their surnames only:
• If someone is identified by their initials only – H.P. Lovecraft, J.M.W. Turner, Philip K. Dick, etc, dots should be used. There is no space between the first dot and second initial
• Asian names go with most common usage e.g. ‘Sunjung Kim’ but note that surname comes first in Asian usage e.g.: Ai WeiWei (Ai is the surname). For Sunjung Kim (Kim is the surname)
e) Other languages
frieze uses standard English (i.e. UK) spelling of words and avoids using American words such as ‘freeway’ instead of ‘motorway’ or ‘garbage’ rather than ‘rubbish’.
Some foreign words that are used in English are used in italics but we follow the Shorter Oxford Dictionary on this point.
Titles in any language other than English are translated in brackets after the title is mentioned the first time but not subsequently.
Names of foreign towns – we use the English version of the name if one is available.
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