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Evolution of Ecosystem

The major biomes of earth have developed over millions of years from bed rock through succession. Succession is the process in which communities of organisms colonize the area over a period of time.

There are two types of succession, primary and secondary succession.

Primary succession

Starts with an empty inorganic surface such as bed rock. The first stage of succession is colonialization and the first organisms to appear during colonialization are known as pioneer species or pioneers.
Example: Algae, fungi, moss, lichens (THALLUS)

These organisms penetrate the bed rock into small grains and organic materials that will break down form humus which is the beginning of the formation of soil. Once there’s soil, other organisms can grow which means the diversity of plants and animals can be increased.

Climax Community: a community where biodiversity is maximized.
Every climax community is rich, the diversity and range of the species are constant.

Plagioclimax: Succession held back due to human activities

Secondary succession

It’s the development of ecosystem from existing soil that’s clear of vegetation. It’s different from primary succession because the soil has already been formed.

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