Dialect - the form of a language that is spoken in one area with grammar, words and pronunciation that may be different from other forms of the same language.
Branch - a division of an area of knowledge or a group of languages.
Borrowing - a word, a phrase or an idea that somebody has taken from another person’s work or from another language and used in their own.
Independence - (of a country) freedom from political control by other countries.
Phoneme - any one of the set of smallest units of speech in a language that make the difference between one word and another. In English, the /s/ sound in sip and the /z/ sound in zip represent two different phonemes.
Morphology - the forms of words, studied as a branch of